Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is a U.S. senator from Vermont and currently running for president in the 2020 Democratic Party primary. Sanders served as the mayor of Burlington, Vermont between 1981 and 1989 and was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives between 1991 and 2007. He has served as one of Vermont's senators since 2007.
- 1 News and Controversy
- 1.1 2020 campaign
- 1.1.1 Won Democrats Abroad Primary
- 1.1.2 Potential Paths Forward for Campaign and Shift of Focus to Coronavirus Response
- 1.1.3 Lost all March 17, 2020 primaries to Biden by double digits
- 1.1.4 Super Tuesday II
- 1.1.5 Super Tuesday
- 1.1.6 Second-Place Finish in South Carolina
- 1.1.7 Won Nevada Caucuses
- 1.1.8 Won New Hampshire Primary
- 1.1.9 Iowa Caucuses
- 1.1.10 Conflict over Call Script and Sanders's Alleged Comments in Private Meeting to Warren
- 1.1.11 Sanders Suffered Heart Attack
- 1.1.12 Media Bias Against Sanders
- 1.1.13 Controversial Nonprofit Status of Our Revolution
- 1.2 2016 primary run
- 1.3 Civil Rights Activism
- 1.1 2020 campaign
- 2 Notable Votes
- 3 Political Stances
- 4 Polling
- 5 Funding
- 5.1 Fourth-Quarter Fundraising
- 5.2 Core Financials
- 5.3 Independent Spending for Biden and Warren Far Exceeded That for Sanders
- 6 Endorsements
- 7 Education
- 8 Career
- 9 Campaign Media
- 10 Related SourceWatch
- 11 References
News and Controversy
Won Democrats Abroad Primary
On March 23, 2020, Sanders won the Democrats Abroad primary by 25 points.
After Sanders's March 17 losses, he trailed Biden by over 300 total pledged delegates. Due to the three-week gap between the March 17 contests and the following primaries, Sanders's campaign had time to explore multiple options for its path forward.
Washington Post described three potential options that had been discussed by Sanders's campaign: "One option that has been raised: Keep the campaign technically active with a goal of winning votes and accumulating delegates to the July nominating convention, but forgo attack ads aimed at delegate leader Joe Biden. Another: Stay in the race and aggressively compete for the nomination. A third choice: End the campaign."
As described by Politico, "As he weighs his options, many of Sanders’ aides and allies are urging him to press forward, even if it is nearly impossible to win the nomination at this point. They see a benefit for him in trying to push Joe Biden to the left and continuing to grow the progressive movement."
After the March 17 primaries, Sanders and his campaign shifted their focus to "the government response to the coronavirus outbreak and ensuring that we take care of working people and the most vulnerable". As of March 20, 2020, the global pandemic had caused many states to postpone their presidential primaries, including Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Lousiana, Maryland, Ohio, Puerto Rico, and Wyoming.
By March 21, 2020, Sanders's campaign had raised over $2 million "for several charities that are working to combat the coronavirus outbreak in the U.S."
Lost all March 17, 2020 primaries to Biden by double digits
By March 17, 2020, Sanders and Biden were the only contenders left in the presidential race with a significant number of delegates. In the three scheduled contests on that date, Biden swept Sanders, winning Arizona, Illinois, and Florida by 11 or more points. Biden notably won Florida by over 39 points.
Super Tuesday II
Sanders won the North Dakota caucuses on March 10, 2020, while Biden won four other states, including Michigan, which allocated the largest number of delegates. Following these contests, the Associated Press reported "The Vermont senator’s path to the presidential nomination considerably narrowed after decisive losses to Biden in Michigan, Missouri and Mississippi." Despite facing pressure "to end his presidential bid and work to unify the party against President Donald Trump", Sanders resolved to stay in the race and will attend a March 15 debate scheduled with Biden.
The Associated Press discussed the positive and negative aspects of Sanders leaving the race early, saying: "Should Sanders get out soon, he could save Democrats months of a messy and expensive primary fight. But an early departure would also deprive the Democrats’ most passionate supporters, including many young people, of the one man who embodies the dramatic change they crave. And there is reason to question whether they would rally behind Biden."
By the morning of March 4, 2020, Sanders had won four Super Tuesday races: California, Colorado, Utah, and Vermont.
As described by Politico, Super Tuesday "showed the limits of Sanders’ appeal relative to his 2016 candidacy. Two of the states he lost— Minnesota and Oklahoma— Sanders had won in 2016. He was also trailing in Maine [as of March 4], another state he won that year. California, which he lost in 2016, was a glaring exception."
Second-Place Finish in South Carolina
Sanders received second-place in the South Carolina primary, losing to Biden by over 28 points. Of the candidates still in the race for Super Tuesday, only Biden and Sanders received pledged delegates in the state's contest.
Won Nevada Caucuses
After Sanders won the state by over 26 points, many news outlets reported how his Nevada victory solidified his status as a front-runner to win the Democratic nomination. NBC wrote, "Bernie Sanders heads into South Carolina stronger than ever" NPR wrote, "The 2020 Democratic nomination is now Sen. Bernie Sanders' to lose", and FiveThirtyEight reported, "This was a big, impressive win for Sanders, and it should be even clearer now that Sanders is easily the most likely Democrat to win the nomination."
Won New Hampshire Primary
Multiple news outlets projected Sanders as the winner of the New Hampshire primary the night of February 11, 2020. Pete Buttigieg finished second, and because the senator's margin of victory was less than 2%, both candidates received 9 of New Hampshire's 24 pledged delegates.
- Declared Victory in Iowa Three Days After Caucuses
In a February 6, 2020 speech held in Manchester, New Hampshire, Sanders declared victory in the Iowa caucuses, saying, "when 6,000 more people come out for you in an election than your nearest opponent, we here in northern New England call that a victory."
Sanders's speech referred to his numbers in the initial alignment of caucusing Iowa voters. As of the time of the speech, Sanders led Buttigieg by around 2,500 votes in the final vote tallies, which took place after voters had the option to switch candidates. As of this same time, however, Buttigieg maintained a 0.1% lead in state delegate equivalents with 99.94% of the precincts reporting.
On February 11, 2020, the day of the New Hampshire primary, AP was still unable to declare a winner in Iowa. A February 11 article by AP reported that Sanders's campaign had requested a recanvass of the state to double-check votes and that campaigns had the additional option to pay for a full recount after the recanvass was completed.
- Led Iowa Caucuses Popular Vote with 71% of Precincts Reporting
The results of the Democratic February 3, 2020 Iowa Caucuses were delayed until the following day due to technical failure. As of the morning of February 5, Sanders held a 1.1% lead in the popular vote, but Buttigieg maintained a 1.6% lead in state delegates.
Conflict over Call Script and Sanders's Alleged Comments in Private Meeting to Warren
Throughout 2019, Sanders and Warren remained allied, supporting each other in the early debates when attacked on their Medicare for All plans by centrist Democrats.
By January 2020, however, Politico reported that "The nonaggression pact between Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren is seriously fraying", highlighting a Sanders campaign script which read: "people who support [Warren] are highly-educated, more affluent people who are going to show up and vote Democratic no matter what... she's bringing no new bases into the Democratic Party."
Warren responded to the news by saying "I was disappointed to hear that Bernie is sending his volunteers out to trash me", while Sanders claimed he had never seen nor approved the memo, saying "I have never said a negative word about Elizabeth Warren who is a friend of mine. We have differences of issues, that’s what the campaign is about, but no one is going to be attacking Elizabeth."
Shortly after the Politico story, CNN reported Sanders had told Warren in a 2018 private meeting that a woman couldn't win the presidency. Sanders denied the claim, while "Warren herself backed up this account of the meeting, saying in part in a statement Monday, 'I thought a woman could win; he disagreed.'"
January 2020 Debate
In the January 2020 Democratic debate, hosted by CNN, Sanders's alleged statements in the private meeting came up. Sanders denied the accusation, pointing out that in 2015, he encouraged Warren to run in the Democratic primary and waited for her to decline before announcing his own bid for the presidency. He also reminded viewers that Hillary Clinton won the popular vote in 2016 by over 3 million votes.
Following Sanders's statement, the debate moderator sided with Warren's account of the meeting, framing the next question: "Sen. Warren, what did you think when Sen. Sanders told you a woman could not win the election?" to which Warren responded, "I disagreed".
After the debate, Warren appeared to refuse Sanders's handshake. CNN released the audio of the confrontation a day after the debate. Warren said, "I think you called me a liar on national TV", to which Sanders responded, "You know, let's not do it right now. If you want to have that discussion, we'll have that discussion". The two then agreed to meet at another time.
After the debate, CNN drew criticism from progressive journalists, who claimed "Democrats assembled in Iowa Tuesday night for the opportunity to take him on in the upcoming general election. This time, though, it was CNN moderators who brought out the bat and swung it hard at Sen. Bernie Sanders" and "CNN was so consistently aligned against Bernie Sanders that it compromised its claim to journalistic neutrality."
Sanders Suffered Heart Attack
On October 1, 2019, while campaigning in Nevada, Sanders suffered a heart attack. Sanders survived the heart attack and held a rally called "Bernie's Back" in Queens, New York on October 21. The rally was attended by an estimated 26,000 and featured U.S. Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who endorsed him there. Later in 2019, doctors declared Sanders to be in good health.
Media Bias Against Sanders
Writing for Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), progressive journalist Katie Halper highlighted bias against Sanders by New York Times journalist Sydney Ember, claiming Ember often quotes "as neutral authorities individuals who are on the other side of a wide ideological divide, with longstanding antipathies to Sanders’ left socioeconomic perspective. Moreover, many of these 'experts' are corporate lobbyists, whose work in a particular area is not guided by academic, journalistic or other professional standards, but by the economic and political interests of their clients."
In another FAIR piece, Halper pointed criticism at MSNBC, claiming "The cable news network has repeatedly made on-air and online mistakes about Sanders’ polling and other numbers— always to his detriment, and never with any official correction" and highlighting other coverage which mischaracterized his percentage of female donors and falsely accused him of ignoring race and gender in his campaign kickoff speech.
Other sources have also criticized MSNBC for "systemic bias" against Sanders.A March 2019 article in The Intercept, talking about MSNBC coverage of Sanders, claimed the media organization "systematically and deliberately refuses to adopt a defining attribute of a news outlet: a willingness to acknowledge factual errors, correct them, and apologize."
Controversial Nonprofit Status of Our Revolution
After his 2016 run concluded, Sanders founded Our Revolution, a group who mission he described as "fighting at the grassroots level for changes in their local school boards, in their city councils, in their state legislatures and in their representation in Washington." Our Revolution was founded as a nonprofit and shortly before its launch, many staff members resigned in protest, "unhappy with the way [Jeff] Weaver had managed Sanders’ primary campaign, as well as having concerns over Our Revolution’s 501(c)(4) status."
Many Sanders supporters criticized the choice to make Our Revolution a nonprofit. The group's former data and analytics director commented: "We have an enormous core of dedicated volunteers. But when Our Revolution was set up as a 501(c)(4), that prevented us from mobilizing that big pool of Bernie supporters to work jointly with [a Congressional] campaign to get out the vote."
In January 2020, the right-wing publication The Daily Caller reported: "Our Revolution received $9.5 million in contributions since 2016 through 2018, but unlike Super PACs, which Sanders often decries, the group is not required to disclose the identity of its donors. Our Revolution reported in its 2018 tax filing that it received contributions of $218,309 and $195,000, but didn’t list the name of the individual or group behind those donations. Our Revolution does disclose on its website the names of donors who have given $250 or more in a single year, but it doesn’t disclose the exact amount each individual has given."
According to Our Revolution's website, "Because of our commitment to transparency, donors who have given $250 or more in a single year are disclosed voluntarily. In addition, annual contributions from a single source are limited to $5,000 unless approved by a majority vote of the Board of Directors."
2016 primary run
Won 22 States, 43% of Popular Vote
Sanders ran for president in 2016 and emerged as the most successful challenger to Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primary. Sanders won 22 states, but ended up losing to Clinton, who won the popular vote 55.2% to 43.1% (around 16.9 million vs. 13.2 million total votes).
Sanders Supporters Won Progressive Aspects of Democratic Party Platform
Despite losing the nomination, Sanders was allowed to choose five members of the drafting committee at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, who fought to include his political stances in the 2016 Democratic Party platform. His nominees included activist and public intellectual Cornell West and environmental activist Bill McKibben.
Clinton's and Sanders's appointees discussed the Israel-Palestine conflict; Sanders supporters wanted to "exclude references to Jerusalem as belonging wholly to Israel... and consider language that labels Israeli settlements in the West Bank 'an occupation'", but Clinton's backers' views largely won out. The final 2016 Democratic party platform claimed "Jerusalem... should remain the capital of Israel" and affirmed the party's support for "Israel’s right to defend itself, including by retaining its qualitative military edge, and oppose any effort to delegitimize Israel, including at the United Nations or through the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement."
Sanders supporters won a party commitment to raising the minimum wage to $15/hour, abolishing the death penalty, legalizing marijuana, and expanding social security. Other positions held by Sanders, such as opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, a ban on fracking, and support for single-payer healthcare, did not make it into the party platform.
Criticism of Superdelegates' Influence on the Democratic Primary
During the primary, the influence of superdelegates, largely consisting of members of the Democratic Party establishment, overwhelmingly supported Clinton. Clinton's large lead in superdelegates gave her a substantial delegate advantage before voters went to the polls. As described in May 2016 by Huffington Post, "Hillary Clinton entered Super Tuesday in March in a virtual tie in pledged delegates with both candidates holding just about 50 pledged delegates, yet she held the support of nearly 400 super delegates. This early lead created the visual that Sanders could not defeat her for many voters, clearly affecting the race."
During the primary, Sanders supporters criticized superdelegates, calling for them to "align yourself with regular voters- not party elites." By 2018, the Democratic National Committee had changed superdelegate rules, preventing them "from voting on the first ballot to choose the party's presidential nominee unless a candidate has secured a majority of the convention using only pledged delegates, whose votes are earned during the primary process."
Civil Rights Activism
While in college at the University of Chicago, Sanders engaged in civil rights activism. He helped lead a sit-in protesting segregated student housing in 1961, was arrested in 1963 for protesting segregated schooling, and attended the 1963 March on Washington, where Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
For a more complete picture of Sen. Bernie Sanders's voting record, visit Vote Smart.
2002 Opposition to the Iraq War
Sanders has been vocal in his presidential campaigns about his vote opposing the Iraq War. In 2016, he criticized Hillary Clinton's vote in favor of the war and in his current campaign, he has attacked Joe Biden for the same. Both Clinton and Biden were among the 77 senators who voted in favor of the war, while Sanders was among the 23 who voted against it.
Sanders introduced Medicare for All legislation in 2019. His campaign website claims Medicare for All will lead to "No networks, no premiums, no deductibles, no copays, no surprise bills." and "Medicare coverage will be expanded and improved to include:... dental, hearing, vision, and home- and community-based long-term care, in-patient and out-patient services, mental health and substance abuse treatment, reproductive and maternity care, prescription drugs, and more."
Sanders's campaign website details his support of several issues, including the Green New Deal, raising taxes on Americans with a net worth of over $32 million to "raise an estimated $4.35 trillion over the next decade", and free public universities and elimination of all student loan debt.
Identifies as Independent in Congress
In Congress, Sanders has served as an independent who caucuses with Democrats. However, rules enacted by the Democratic Party before his 2020 run required him to file as a Democrat for his presidential run. According to National Public Radio, "Sanders' ambiguous party loyalty was one reason the Democratic National Committee adopted rules for 2020 candidates to affirm that they are, in fact, a Democrat, and will run and serve as one." Sanders, however, was still allowed to simultaneously file for a potential 2024 Senate run as an Independent.
In a 1990 interview, Sanders clarified his political views, saying "To me, socialism doesn’t mean state ownership of everything, by any means, it means creating a nation, and a world, in which all human beings have a decent standard of living."
While Sanders shied away from the term "socialist" during the beginning of his political career, he had fully embraced the label of "Democratic Socialist" by the early 2000's. He frequently points to Scandinavian society as an example of his brand of democratic socialism, saying "there is a lot to be learned from countries that have created more egalitarian societies than has the United States of America."
National Polling Average
According to data collected by FiveThirtyEight before the Iowa caucuses, Sanders fluctuated between second and third in national polling average, behind Joe Biden and competing with Elizabeth Warren for second place. In late November, Sanders began to overtake Warren in national polling and he remained in second place throughout December 2019 and January 2020.
Sanders overtook Biden in national polling average on February 10, 2020, but after winning a majority of states on both Super Tuesday contests, Biden regained a lead of between 15 and 20 points throughout most of March.
Early State Polling Averages
According to FiveThirtyEight, Sanders's polling average of 22.2% in Iowa had him in first place on February 3, 2020, the day of the state's caucuses. Throughout 2019, Sanders fluctuated between second and fourth place, but his polling improved in 2020 and he broke 20% in January.
In New Hampshire, the second state to vote, Sanders's polling average of 21.9% has him in first place. Throughout 2019, Sanders has polled between first and third place.
In Nevada and South Carolina, the following scheduled voting states, Sanders is in second place behind Biden. According to the most recent polling as of mid-January 2020, Sanders trailed Biden by single digits in Nevada but Biden enjoyed a 20+ point lead over all other candidates in South Carolina. 
According to Sanders's campaign, he raised $34.5 in the fourth quarter of 2019, $9.8 million more than the nearest Democratic competitor. In the fourth quarter, the campaign also announced it had received over 5 million contributions, more than any other presidential candidate of either party. During this period, his average donation size was $18.53, lower than Warren's and Buttigieg's (Biden has not released average donation numbers).
From the Federal Election Commission as of February 2020:
- Total raised: $134,268,972.81
- Total spent: $122,809,504.51
- Cash on hand: $16,835,494.84
Source of Funds
As of September 2019: (percentages may not add up to 100)
|Contribution Size||Amount||Percentage of Total|
|Small individual contributions (< $200)||$73,942,140||55.23%|
|Other (likely transfer from previous campaigns)||$12,934,495||9.66%|
|University of California||$297,781|
|Alphabet Inc (parent company of Google)||$296,622|
|US Postal Service||$146,826|
|City of New York, NY||$131,306|
|US Dept of Veterans Affairs||$81,885|
|US Air Force||$80, 306|
|State of California||$78,761|
|Type||Amount||Percentage of total|
From Open Secrets:
|Aisle 518 Strategies||$3,490,588|
|Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Vermont||$1,122,912|
|Yellow Leaf LLC||$553,503|
|Production Management One||$327,302|
|US Postal Service||$311,678|
|Dwf V 1133 15th||$299,017|
|First Step Print Shop||$272,574|
|Foster Garvey PC||$261,632|
|Front Runner Productions||$249,825|
|Maverick Strategies & Mail||$233,827|
|Gordon & Schwenkmeyer||$197,776|
Outside Spending in Favor of Sanders
As described by OpenSecrets, "Organizations and individuals looking to do more than just write a check to their favorite candidates can spend unlimited money-- independently-- to buy ads, send mail or otherwise advocate for the election or defeat of specific candidates. Corporations, labor unions and ideological groups may also spend directly on these activities as a result of the Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. FEC. They cannot coordinate with candidates or parties." (Only top 10 contributors shown).
|Committee||Amount in Support of Sanders|
|Vote Nurses Values PAC||$641,776|
|National Nurses United for Patient Protection||$69,738|
|Democratic Socialists of America||$48,760|
|Popular Democracy PAC||$19,500|
|Dream Defenders Fight PAC||$16,199|
|Democratic Socialists of America/East Bay||$10,564|
|Democracy for America||$10,000|
|Democratic Socialists of America/Seattle||$2,572|
Outside Spending Opposing Sanders
Taken from OpenSecrets: (Only expenditures above $5,000 shown)
|Committee||Amount Opposing Sanders|
|Democratic Majority for Israel||$800,000|
|Club for Growth Action||$59,077|
Independent Spending for Biden and Warren Far Exceeded That for Sanders
A Center for Media and Democracy report published after Super Tuesday investigated the outside spending for Biden, Sanders, and Warren and found that "When subtracting the negative outside spending from the positive spending, Warren’s net outside spending total is +$15 million. Biden’s is +$8.2 million. Bernie’s is far below, at -$5 million."
As of February 2020, Sanders was fourth in endorsement points behind Joe Biden, Elizabeth Warren, and Michael Bloomberg, according to FiveThirtyEight's endorsement tracker. The prediction website ranks endorsements based on their position within the party. For example, former presidents and vice presidents are worth 10 points, governors are worth 8 points, U.S. senators are 6 points, and U.S. representatives are 3 points.
By October 2019, Sanders's notable endorsements included Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ihlan Omar, and Rashida Tlaib, three members of "The Squad", "a group of four freshmen congresswomen of color who have rallied around progressive policy views." The fourth member of "The Squad", Ayanna Presley, endorsed Elizabeth Warren.
Endorsed By Top Members of Congressional Progressive Caucus
In January 2020, Mark Pocan and Pramila Jayapal endorsed Sanders as well. Following their endorsements, Sanders had secured support from the top four members of the Congressional Progressive Caucus: co-chairs Pocan and Jayapal, first vice chair Ro Khanna, and whip Ihlan Omar.
Notably, Sanders was one of the original founders of the Congressional Progressive Caucus and served as its first chair in 1991.
- 1964: B.S. in political science, University of Chicago
- Mayor of Burlington, Vermont, 1981-1989
- U.S. Representative from Vermont, 1991-2007
- U.S. Senator from Vermont, 2007-present
- Bill McKibben
- Center for Media and Democracy
- Congress of Racial Equality
- The Daily Caller
- Democratic Party
- Elizabeth Warren
- Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting
- Hillary Clinton
- Huffington Post
- The Intercept
- Joe Biden
- Martin Luther King, Jr.
- Michael Bloomberg
- National Public Radio
- Pete Buttigieg
- Pramila Jayapal
- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
- U.S. House of Representatives
- Gregory Lewis McNamee, "Bernie Sanders", Encyclopaedia Brittanica, accessed January 21, 2020.
- Julia Manchester, "Sanders wins Democrats Abroad primary", Hill, March 23, 2020, accessed March 23, 2020.
- Bloomberg, "Who’s Winning the 2020 Presidential Delegate Count?", Bloomberg News, last updated March 23, 2020, accessed March 23, 2020.
- Sean Sullivan, "Bernie Sanders is considering several options as he ponders his campaign’s future", Washington Post, March 21, 2020.
- Holly Otterbein and David Siders, "Bernie’s rough day after", Politico, March 18, 2020, accessed March 23, 2020.
- Rebecca Morin, "List of states delaying their presidential primaries grows as Maryland pushes to June", USA Today, last updated March 20, 2020, accessed March 23, 2020.
- Marty Johnson, "Sanders raises over $2 million for coronavirus relief effort", Hill, March 21, 2020, accessed March 23, 2020.
- Steve Peoples and Wilson Ring, "Bernie Sanders says he’s moving ahead with his Dem campaign", Associated Press, March 11, 2020, accessed March 11, 2020.
- Politico Staff, "Your 2020 Super Tuesday results", Politico, March 4, 2020, accessed March 4, 2020.
- Natasha Korecki and Marc Caputo, "‘I’ve never seen anybody mount a comeback like this — ever’", Politico, March 4, 2020, accessed March 4, 2020.
- Bloomberg, "Who’s Winning the 2020 Presidential Delegate Count?", Bloomberg News, last updated, March 2, 2020, accessed March 2, 2020.
- Meg Cunningham, Kendall Karson,Quinn Scanlan, and Adam Kelsey, "Sen. Bernie Sanders projected to win Nevada caucuses", ABC News, February 22, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- Scott McDonald, "Bernie Sanders Projected as Nevada Caucuses Winner", Newsweek, February 22, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- AP News, "Bernie Sanders wins Democratic presidential caucuses in Nevada, cementing front-runner status", AP News, February 23, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- Alex Seitz-Wald, "Unstoppable? Bernie Sanders heads into South Carolina stronger than ever", NBC News, February 23, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- Domenico Montanaro, "After The Nevada Caucuses, Bernie Sanders Is The Man To Beat", NPR, February 23, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- Nate Silver, "Bernie Sanders Wins Nevada — Putting Him In The Driver’s Seat To Win The Nomination", FiveThirtyEight, February 22, 2020, accessed February 23, 2020.
- Abigail Weinberg, "Bernie Sanders Wins the New Hampshire Primary", Mother Jones, February 11, 2020, accessed February 11, 2020.
- Politico, "2020 New Hampshire primary results", Politico, February 12, 2020, accessed February 12, 2020.
- The Hill, "CAMPAIGN 2020: BERNIE SANDERS declares victory over PETE BUTTIGIEG in Iowa Caucus", The Hill YouTube channel, February 6, 2020, accessed February 6, 2020.
- Politico, "2020 Iowa caucus results", Politico, February 12, 2020, accessed February 12, 2020.
- AP, "AP Explains: Why isn't there a winner of Iowa's Dem caucuses", Microsoft News, February 11, 2020, accessed February 12, 2020.
- Quint Forgey, "Bernie and Buttigieg elbow each other with claims of leads in Iowa", Politico, February 3, 2020, accessed February 5, 2020.
- Politico, "Pete Buttigieg and Bernie Sanders are fighting for first place in the protracted Iowa caucus count.", Politico, February 5, 2020, last updated, 10:33 AM EST, accessed February 5, 2020.
- Jonathan Easley, "Sanders, Warren battle centrists in testy debate", The Hill, July 30, 2019, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Alex Thompson and Holly Otterbein, "Bernie campaign slams Warren as candidate of the elite", January 12, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Peter Wade, "Warren is ‘Disappointed’ That Bernie Sent ‘Volunteers Out to Trash’ Her", Rolling Stone, January 12, 2020, accessed January 16, 2020.
- MJ Lee, "Bernie Sanders told Elizabeth Warren in private 2018 meeting that a woman can't win, sources say", CNN, January 13, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Arwa Mahdawi, "There’s only one winner in the Sanders-Warren ‘fight’: Joe Biden", Guardian, January 14, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Melissa Quinn, "Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren spar over whether he said a woman couldn't win the presidency", CBS News, January 15, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- CNN, "Elizabeth Warren fires back at Bernie Sanders' denial about women candidates", CNN, January 14, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Joan E Greve, "Democratic debate: Warren appears to reject handshake with Sanders after clash – as it happened", Guardian, January 14, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Kyle Blaine, Jeff Zeleny and Marshall Cohen, "Exclusive: Warren accused Sanders in tense post-debate exchange of calling her a 'liar' on national TV", CNN, January 15, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Ryan Grim, Aida Chávez, and Akela Lacy, "At the Iowa Debate, Bernie Sanders’s Most Vociferous Opponent Was CNN", Intercept, January 15, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Jeet Heer, "CNN Has It In for Bernie", Nation, January 15, 2020, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Melissa Quinn, "Doctors declare Bernie Sanders in 'good health' following heart attack", CBS News, December 30, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Democracy Now!, "Bernie’s Back: AOC Backs Sanders as 26,000 Rally in NYC at Largest Presidential Rally of 2019", Democracy Now!], October 21, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Katie Halper, "Sydney Embers Secret Sources", FAIR, June 28, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Katie Halper, "MSNBC’s Anti-Sanders Bias Makes It Forget How to Do Math", FAIR, July 26, 2019, accessed January 14, 2019.
- Luke Savage, "The Corporate Media’s War Against Bernie Sanders Is Very Real", Jacobin, November 20, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Glenn Greenwald, "MSNBC Yet Again Broadcasts Blatant Lies, This Time About Bernie Sanders’s Opening Speech, and Refuses to Correct Them", Intercept, March 3, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Eliza Newlin Carney, "Nonprofit Structure Backfires on 'Our Revolution'", American Prospect, September 1, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Adam Gabbatt, "Fleeing the Bern: half of staff quit Sanders legacy project before it begins", Guardian, August 25, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Clare Foran, "How the Political Revolution Failed Tim Canova", Atlantic, August 30, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Libby Watson, "Bernie Sanders’s new political group won’t have to disclose its donors", Sunlight Foundation, August 26, 2019, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Andrew Kerr, [hhttps://dailycaller.com/2020/01/09/bernie-sanders-our-revolution/ "Dark Money Has Bolstered Bernie’s Campaign From The Start"], Daily Caller, January 9, 2020, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Our Revolution, Our Revolution Donors, nonprofit website, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Real Clear Politics, 2016 Democratic Nomination, organizational website, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Brilliant Maps, 2016 Democratic Presidential Primary Results by County, organizational website, accessed January 13, 2020.
- Green Papers, "Democratic Convention", Green Papers, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Daniel Strauss, "DNC agrees to give Sanders greater influence over party platform", Politico, May 23, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Tal Kopan and Elise Labott, "Hillary Clinton's views on Israel win out in DNC platform, for now", CNN, June 24, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Democratic Platform Committee, 2016 DNC Platform, party platform, July 8-9, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020, p. 44.
- Jessie Hellmann, "Sanders: 'We lost some very important fights' in Democratic platform", The Hill, June 26, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Kristen East and Daniel Strauss, "Sanders claims victory on $15 minimum wage in party platform, but is defeated on TPP", Politico, July 19, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Maryalice Parks, "Democrats Finalize Exceptionally Progressive Party Platform", ABC News, July 10, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Heather Gautney, "How Bernie Sanders Delivered the Most Progressive Platform in Democratic Party History", Nation, July 12, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020 (subscription needed).
- Katrina vanden Heuvel, "The most progressive Democratic platform ever", Washington Post, July 12, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020 (subscription needed).
- Antonio Moore, "How Democratic Superdelegates Decided the 2016 Election", Huffington Post, May 23, 2016 (updated December 6, 2017), accessed January 14, 2020.
- Daniel Strauss, "Sanders supporters revolt against superdelegates", Politico, February 14, 2016, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Adam Levy, "DNC changes superdelegate rules in presidential nomination process", CNN, August 25, 2018, accessed January 14, 2020.
- Shaun King, "Why Bernie Sanders’s History of Racial Justice Activism Matters", Jacobin, June 22, 2018, accessed January 22, 2020.
- Tim Murphy, "Here’s What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement", Mother Jones, February 11, 2016, accessed January 22, 2020.
- Trevor Timm, "Bernie Sanders' focus on Clinton's Iraq war vote isn't harping - it's necessary", Guardian, April 11, 2016, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Evan Semones, "Sanders campaign assails Biden over Iraq war vote", Politico, January 11, 2020 (updated January 12, 2020), accessed January 15, 2020.
- Deborah White, "Congress Members Who Voted Against the 2002 Iraq War", ThoughtCo., August 17, 2019, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Nathan J. Robinson, "Why Bernie Sanders is (still) the most progressive choice for president", Guardian, December 19, 2018, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Arwa Mahdawi, "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez knows: Bernie Sanders is the most progressive choice", Guardian, October 17, 2019, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Emma Specter, "Bernie Sanders Is the Most Progressive Politician in the 2020 Race. Why Aren’t More People Talking About Him?", Vogue, November 8, 2019, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Shefali Luthra, "As Sanders Calls For 'Medicare-For-All,' A Twist On That Plan Gains Traction", NPR, April 11, 2019, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Bernie 2020, "Health Care as a Human Right - Medicare For All", campaign website, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Bernie 2020, "The Green New Deal", campaign website, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Bernie 2020, "Tax on Extreme Wealth", campaign website, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Bernie 2020, "College for All and Cancel All Student Debt", campaign website, accessed January 16, 2020.
- Domenico Montanaro, "Bernie Sanders Files To Run As A Democrat— And An Independent", NPR, March 4, 2019, accessed January 23, 2020.
- Rebel HQ, "How 'American Socialist' Eugene Victor Debs Inspired Bernie Sanders", Rebel HQ YouTube channel, May 4, 2018, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Separation of Corporation and State, "Bernie Sanders - Eugene Debs Documentary - 1979", Separation of Corporation and State YouTube channel, July 26, 2015, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Michael Kruse, "14 things Sanders has said about socialism", Politico, July 14, 2015, accessed January 15, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in the national polls?, organizational website, accessed February 12, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in the national polls?, organizational website, accessed March 25, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in Iowa?, organizational website, accessed February 3, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in New Hampshire?, organizational website, accessed January 26, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in Nevada?, organizational website, accessed January 6, 2020.
- Five Thirty Eight, Who’s ahead in South Carolina?, organizational website, accessed January 6, 2020.
- Cara Korte and Ellen Uchimiya, "Bernie Sanders beat Democratic rivals to raise $34.5 million in the 4th quarter", CBS News, January 2, 2020, accessed January 13, 2020.
- Nate Ashworth, "Bernie Sanders Blows Away Field With 4th Quarter Fundraising Total (Updated)", Election News, January 2, 2020, accessed January 13, 2020.
- FEC, Bernie 2020, commission website, accessed February 24, 2020.
- OpenSecrets, Bernie Sanders (D), organizational website, accessed February 24, 2020.
- Salvador Rizzo, "Are Warren and Sanders ‘100% grassroots-funded’?", Washington Post, September 30, 2019, accessed January 13, 2020.
- OpenSecrets, Top Contributors, federal election data for Bernie Sanders, 2020 cycle, organizational website, accessed January 7, 2020.
- OpenSecrets, Expenditures Breakdown, Bernie Sanders, 2020 cycle, organizational website, accessed January 13, 2020.
- OpenSecrets, Independent Expenditures, Bernie Sanders, 2020 cycle, OpenSecrets, accessed February 24, 2020.
- Alex Kotch, "Independent Spending for Biden and Warren Dwarfs Outside Support for Sanders", Center for Media and Democracy, March 5, 2020, accessed March 11, 2020.
- FiveThirtyEight, "The 2020 Endorsement Primary", FiveThirtyEight, accessed February 6, 2020.
- Ryan Bort, "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ilhan Omar, Rashida Tlaib to Endorse Bernie Sanders. Will It Matter?", Rolling Stone, October 16, 2019, accessed January 13, 2020.
- Ryan Bort, "Rep. Ayanna Pressley Endorses Elizabeth Warren for President", Rolling Stone, November 6, 2019, accessed January 10, 2020.
- Emma Newberger, "Rep. Pramila Jayapal, leading progressive congresswoman, endorses Bernie Sanders for president", CNBC, January 19, 2020, accessed January 20, 2020.