Broda O Barnes

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Broda Otto Barnes was a researcher at the Webster-Barnes Research Foundation, at the Colorado State University. He was also a recipient secret CTR Special Projects #4 grants, who elected to be funded through this way to keep their funding and retainers hidden. See CTR Special Projects

Documents & Timeline

1961 Jan 16 Newsweek reported on research by Broda Barnes of Denver, Colorado and Max Ratzenhofer of Graz, Austria in the NEJM. They claimed that "scores of patients were surviving TB early in life only to contract lung cancer in later years. Confirmed by Dr Alf Westerngren of Sweden. [2]


1965 Dec 17 General Counsel approved Ad Hoc Committee Special Project #4 grant proposals. These were for:

Epidemiologic study to find pockets of high lung cancer incidence without relation to smoking habits." They were to consider New Orleans, Ten City Survey, El Paso, New York City, Pittsburgh, Mexican women and Dr.Palmer's project in the southern part of Africa.

  • SP#123 -- Dr [John] Palmer's project in southern part of Africa -- authorised $600 for feasibility study.
  • CTR SP#42 -- Dr Broda O Barnes travelling expenses to investigate the feasibility of a project reviewing bronchiogentic carcinoma in Graz, Austria -- $2,500
  • SP#107 and SP#108 -- The SAB of CTR awarded 1 year grant of $23,000 (from July 1 1966) for Dr Barnes to pursue studies at autopsy in Graz, Austria for two years.
[3]

1966 Special Account #4 Grant No 41 -- $2500 for his trip to Graz.

[Note that the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the CTR handled the legitimate research projects. It would reject anythng that smelled of industry distortion because about half the SAB members were genuine researchers, just looking for a grant themselves. Dubious research was therefore sent to the lawyers and funded via Special Projects Account #4]

1966-68: A later summary of the grants made by the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) Special Projects shows that in 1966 Broda O Barnes was paid a SAB-approved related grant for $23,000. (related to his original travel funding to Graz) However Barnes produced material which he exhibited at medical meetings, and the board "did not wish to be further associated with type of activity and voted to discontinue his grant as of now." [4]

1966 Feb He has submitted a carefully/legally worded outline of project to run an exhibition in Graz for the tobacco industry. He planned on taking Mrs Barnes along for the ride, and he wanted all expenses paid, but no payment for his time.

The outline is contained in a letter addressed to J Morrison Brady, the Associate Scientific Director at the CTR (one of the executives who decided whether it should be funded legitimately via the SAB, or via backdoor lawyers through Special Accounts #4)

His plan is to return to Gras for a month, when he and his wife Charlotte W Barnes will collect statistics on tobacco consumption. The immediate cost is for air-fares and entertainment expenses will be $2,500. While in Graz he will talk with a couple of experts about the autopsy program. Later, for another $1,500 he will collect data for a medical conference presentation, and for an annual fee of $5,000 he will arrange to have autopsy details transfered to IBM cards. He was given the $2,500 for expenses, and an introduction to Dr Joseph V Berkson in Paris on the way.

[Berkson was a statistician who also worked for the tobacco industry, but didn't conceal it via Special Account #4]
[The Images of the display Barnes created for medical meetings are dated Nov 1967. Very poor quality [5]

1966 Oct 4 A very revealing hand-note by Science Director Robert Hockett of the CTR and Special Project grants: He lists who had received money, who had made reports, etc. Many of these pages are attached to a note from Theodor Sterling one of the worst.
[These are mainly Science Advisory Board (SAB = legitimate) research grants with numbers in the hundreds, but we can identify the SP = Special Projects, with low numbers] Hockett notes:

SP-41   Expenses for trip to Graz, Austria to investigate the feasibility of an autopsy study in that city. Borda O Barnes, $2,500
  The SAB subsequentially approved a grant for $23,000 with an anticipated duration of two years. He was to produce two studies

  • Epidemiology of lung cancer (inheritance, pollution, personal habits, etc.
  • Role of the decrease in TB in the rise of lung-cancer, amphysema and myocardial infarction.
[6]

1968 Feb 5 Broda Barnes has given testimony before a Congressional Committee on the Labelling of Cigarettes. He says he is a part-time researcher and was chairman of the Department of Health Education at the University of Denver. He does not smoke and has no financial interest in the tobacco industry.

He also states that lung cancer has more than quadrupled recently - and claims these are the survivers of TB. He uses records from Graz, Austria. [7]


1969 Apr 29 The Tobacco Institute has issued a press release from Washington DC saying:

Washington, April 29--Four physicians; a mathematician and an author on statistics joined today in telling Congress of the lack of evidence on which additional cigarette regulation might be based. Backing up witnesses before the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, the six experts expressed their views in written statements filed with the committee.

  • Dr Israel Rappaport, New York chest physician
  • Dr Lyman A Brewer III, thoracic surgeon, and professor at Loma linda University medical school in Los Anglese.
  • Dr Charles Hine, pharmacology and preventive medicine lecturer, University of California, Medical School, San Francisco
  • Dr Broda O Barnes, Colorado physician, Fort Collins,
    Barnes claimed to devotes ubstantial time to research, and said that his studies of Austrian autopsy record show "most, if not all, of the reported increases in lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema have not resulted from smoking cigarettes, diet or other environmental factors" (His thesis relates to the lower death-rate from TB)
  • Dr John Wesley Sawyer, Wake Forest University professsor of mathematics
  • Darrell Huff, Carmel California, author of "How to Lie with Statistics"

This was an attack on the 1967 PHS Morbidity Report on S&H. [8]


1970 Feb 28 He has received another $ 2500 Special Account #4 payment under the heading Consultants Fees and Expenses. By comparison with the other Special Project recipients he is small-fry. [9]


1980 Feb JT Dobbins Jr of RJ Reynolds is promoting the book "Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness. This contains "...some ideas set forth in Dr Broda O.Barnes popular/medical treatise: "Hypothyroidism and Smoking/Health."

The ideas Barnes promotes (arising from his Graz autopsies) is that perhaps 40% of the population has less-than-optimal thyroid activity. This leads to less resistance to infections diseases and increased susceptibility to lung cancer, atherosclerosis and emotional problems. These differences explain why smokers get a lift from their fags, and also why they get lung cancer and heart disease.

[His wife Charlotte W Barnes was a joint author in one of his books, Lawrence Galton was coauthor in another.] [10]

1984, Barnes established a not-for-profit foundation, the Broda O. Barnes Research Foundation, to continue to advocate his arguments about hypothyroidism. See Broda Otto Barnes - Wikipedia, [His theories are discredited] [11]



1992 Dec 31 The Council for Tobacco Research: Log - Special Projects [12]


1998 Nov 11 Facts witnesses in Texas Case [13] He was an industry consultant, CTR grentee and a CTR special projects recipient.


Court-declared list of scientists

Note: this is just a partial list of the scientists, academics and 'consultants' who were being paid via Special Project accounts. It deals only with the scientists known to the courts at the time it was compiled. Many other academics and professionals were paid via these accounts as revealed at later dates.  

The Council of Tobacco Research (CTR) was a tobacco front group designed to promote the idea that science had not proven cigarettes were bad for your health. Those listed below were scientists funded by tobacco to confuse the scientific issues.
Grants made via the CTR's Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) may be legitimate (or not), but those made through the secret Special Account #4 were effectively bribes.
UNDATED: But possibly 1975 — INDIVIDUALS OBTAINING SECRET GRANTS THROUGH CTR Special Account #4
Domingo M Aviado Lauren V Ackerman George Albee James Ballenger
Alvan L Barach Walter L Barker Broda O Barnes SP#41
W-BRF, Colorado State Uni.
Walter Becker
Peter Berger Rodger L Bick Theodore H Blau Richard Bing
Evelyn J Bowers Thomas H Brem Irvin Blose Walter M Booker
Oliver Brooke Richard Brotman Lyman A Brewer SP#47
School of Medicine, USC, LA
Barbara B Brown SP#50
PANA Res.Found., Sepulveda CA
K Alexander Brownlee Katherine Bryant Victor B Buhler Thomas H Burford
J Harold Burn Marie Burnett Maurice Campbell Duane Carr
Rune Cederlof Domenic V Cicchetti Martin J Cline W Clark Cooper
Anthony M Cosentino Daniel Cox Gertrude M Cox
Geza De Takato Bertram D Dimmens Charles Dunlap Henry W Elliott
J Earle Estes Frederick J Evans William Evans Hans J Eysenck SP#60/65
Uni of London, UK.
Jack M Farris Sherwin J Feinhandler Alvan R Feinstein SP#2
Yale Uni, New Haven, Conn
Herman Feldman
Edward Fickes Theodor N Finley Melvin W First Edwin R Fisher
Russel S Fisher Merritt W Foster Richard Freedman Herbert Freudenberger
Arthur Furst Nicholas Gerber Menard M Gertler Jean D Gibbons
Carl Glasser Donald Goodwin Bernard G Greenberg Alan Griffen
Finn Gyntelberg William Heavlin Norman W Heimstra Joseph Herkson
Richard J. Hickey SP#56
Wharton School, U of Penn.
Carlos Hilado Harold C Hodge Charles H Hine
Gary L Huber Wilhelm C Hueper Darrell Huff Duncan Hutcheon
Joseph J Janis Roger A Jenkins Marvin Kastenbaum Marti Kirschbaum
Leonard A Katz SP#3
Michigan State Uni, East Lansing
Lawrence L Kuper Mariano La Via Hiram T Langston SP#4
VA Hospital, Hines IL
William G Leaman Michael Lebowitz Samuel B Lehrer William Lerner
Edward Raynar Levine Gerald J Lieberman Stephen C Littlechild Eleanor Macdonald
Nathan Mantel Ross McFarland Thomas F Mancuso SP#67
Occ.Health, Uni of Pittsburgh
Milton Meckler
Nancy Mello Jack Mendelson Irvin Miller Marc Micozzi
Kenneth M Moser Albert H Niden Judith O'Fallon John O'Lane
William B Ober Joseph H Ogura Ronald Okun Ingram Olkin
Thomas L Petty Leslie Preger Walter J. Priest Richard Proctor
Terrence P Pshler Herbert L. Ratcliffe Attilio Renzetti L.G.S. Rao
Raymond H Rigdon Jay Roberts Milton B Rosenblatt John Rosencrans
Walter Rosenkrantz Ray H Rosenman Linda Russek Henry Russek
Ragnar Rylander George L Saiger D.E. Sailagyi I Richard Savage
Richard S Schilling Stanley S Schor Gerhard N Schrauzer Charles Schultz
John Schwab Carl C Seltzer Paul Shalmy Robert Shilling
Henry Shotwell Allen Silberberg N. Skolnik James F Smith SP#43
Uni of Tennessee, Memphis
Louis A. Soloff Sheldon C Sommers (CTR) JB Spalding Charles Spielberg
Charles Spielberger Lawrence Spielvogel Russell Stedman Arthur Stein
Elia Sterling Theodor Sterling SP#51/58/61/62
Washington U, St Louis
Thomas Szasz Paul Toannidis
Chris P Tsokos Helmut Valentin Richard Wagner Norman Wall
Roger Wilson Jack Wiseman George Wright John P Wyatt
Jacob Yerushalmy SP#59
SPH UC Berkely+ Stats, Jerusalem
Irving Zeidman
ORGANISATIONS OBTAINING SECRET GRANTS THROUGH CTR Special Account #4
Aleph Foundation Arthur D. Little Aspen Conference Atmospheric Health Sciences
(Domingo M Avido)
ACVA Atlantic
(Gray Robertson)
Able-Lands Battelle Columbus Laboratories Battelle Memorial Institute
Billings & Gussman BioResearch Laboratories
(L.G.S. Rao)
Brigham Young University Colucci & Associates
Cohen Coleghety Foundation Code Consultants Inc. Carney Enterprises Computerland
Engineered Energy Management Environmental Policy Institute Eysenck Institute of Psychiatry
(Hans J Eysenck)
Fudenberg Harvard Medical School Hine Inc.
(Charles H Hine)
Information Intersciences
International Consultancy International Technology Corporation International Information Institute J.B. Spalding Statistical Service
J.F. Smith Research Account Jacob, Medinger & Finnegan Kravetz Levine & Spotnitz Shook, Hardy & Bacon
Michigan State University Meckler Engineering Group
(Milton Meckler)
Peat, Marwick Main & Co. R.W. Andersohn & Assoc.
Pitney, Hardin & Kipp Public Smoking Research Group Response Analysis Project
(Alfred Vogel/Reuben Cohen)
Response Analysis Corporation
(Alfred Vogel/Reuben Cohen)
Schirmer Engineering Corp. St. George Hospital & Medical School Stanford Research Institution Project Found. for Res. in Bronchial Asthma and Related Diseases
The Futures Group University of South Florida Wayne State University Weinberg Consulting Group
(Myron Weinberg)
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
DOUBLE-HIDDEN SPECIAL GRANTS paid through the companies/itself
CTR (paid itself) Hearings-Kennedy-Hart Bill Industry Research Liaison Committee Philip Morris
Thomas S Osdene
RJ Reynolds
Murray Senkus
Sources: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCOURTS-dcd-1_99-cv-02496/pdf/USCOURTS=dcd-1_99-cv-02496-4.pdf
See also [14] and this 1972-81 list with the total amounts paid: [15] This is not an exhaustive list.<br The CTR also has a special site with an index under the Minnesota Agreement. (not very useful) [16]

These are CTR Special Project grantees now known not to have been included in the above list: [17]

References