Congress for Cultural Freedom

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The Congress for Cultural Freedom was "an anti-communist advocacy group founded in 1950. In 1967, it was revealed that it was established and funded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency, and it was subsequently renamed the International Association for Cultural Freedom (IACF). At its height, the CCF/IACF was active in some thirty-five countries and also received significant funding from the Ford Foundation." [1]


  • Peter Coleman, The liberal conspiracy : the Congress for Cultural Freedom and the struggle for the mind of postwar Europe, Free Press (Collier Macmillan), New York/London (1989) ISBN 0029064813.
  • Constantin Jelenski and K.A. Jelenski (Editor), History and Hope: Tradition, Ideology, and Change in Modern Society, Congress for Cultural Freedom, Berlin (1962; 1970) ISBN 0836917944.

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External links


Articles & Commentary

  • Ambassador David J. Fischer [2], "Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1949-50," International Relations Department, San Francisco State University, undated: "This article is an excerpt from a larger classified draft study of CIA involvement with anti-Communist groups in the Cold War. The author retains a footnoted copy of the article in the CIA History Staff. This version of the article has been redacted for security considerstions (phrases in brackets denote some of the redactions)."