European Central Bank
The European Central Bank, together with the central banks of the European Union member countries, form the central banking system for the 'eurosystem'. The mission of the European Central Bank, according to its website, is "to maintain price stability: safeguarding the value of the Euro.  The bank is based in Frankfurt.
The ECB is a mixture of a central bank and a structural manager of the Euro currency countries. It serves to:
- regulate the creation of Euro funds (either by open market operations or printing currency)
- purchase sovereign debt from financially stressed countries; or where access to financial markets has been hampered by overall conditions.
- issue Eurobonds which are then allocated to member countries.
- depending on a country's finances, the ECB's actions range from merely holding constructive discussions with the governments involved, all the way to impose fiscal, monetary and government spending controls.
- Mario Draghi – appointed 1 November 2011.
- Jean-Claude Trichet – 1 November 2003 – 31 October 2011
- Wim Duisenberg – 1 July 1998 – 31 October 2003
- Otmar Issing – chief economist at the ECB between 1998 and 2006, and the spiritual father of the euro
- Jürgen Stark – resigned in January 2011.
- European Central Bank, The mission of the European Central Bank
- Paul Jay, William K. Black, Paolo Manasse, and John Weeks, Is the Euro Crisis Over?, TRNN, 2 January 2012.