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"In 2000, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and British Petroleum became the primary founders of a little-known exchange based in Atlanta, Ga., known as the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE). A year later, the ICE purchased the London-based International Petroleum Exchange (IPE), and was renamed ICE Futures. It was an acquisition that was fairly straightforward until 2006, when the CFTC under President George W. Bush — seemingly out of nowhere — officially recognized the ICE as a foreign-based exchange because it had purchased the IPE."[1]


Accessed July 2010: [2]



Resources and articles

Related Sourcewatch


  1. Jed Morey, "How Morgan Stanley Has Raked in Billions by Manipulating the Prices of Everyday Commodities", Alternet, February 21, 2014.
  2. Directors, , accessed July 20, 2010.

External resources

External articles