John Toye "studied the economics of poor countries at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His Ph.D thesis was on the relation between public expenditure and development planning in India. His interest in Africa started from evaluations of the impact of aid in Africa in the 1980s. He returned to Africa to study the operation of aid conditionality in Ghana, in the context of structural adjustment programmes. This was published as part of a larger study of the World Bank, P. Mosley, J. Harrigan and J. Toye, "Aid and Power: the World Bank and Policy-based Lending", 2 vols., second edition 1995. Since then, he has worked on aspects of poverty reduction policies in Tanzania, Zambia and Ethiopia." 
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- John Toye, Oxford University, accessed August 31, 2008.