Koch Network

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Since at least 2006, the Koch brothers have hosted semi-annual meetings for wealthy right-wing donors, sometimes referred to as the Koch network.[1] While these gatherings are carefully guarded, occasional leaked documents and recordings have revealed that they include "titans of industry — from health insurance companies, oil executives, Wall Street investors, and real estate tycoons — working together with conservative journalists and Republican operatives," as well as prominent public officials, including members of Congress, state governors, and even Supreme Court Justices Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia.[2] The meetings involve fundraising, reportedly in the millions of dollars, as well as discussions about political strategy.[3]

The known locations, dates, and participants in Koch network meetings are listed below.

Koch Wiki

Charles Koch is the right-wing billionaire owner of Koch Industries. As one of the richest people in the world, he is a key funder of the right-wing infrastructure, including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) and the State Policy Network (SPN). In SourceWatch, key articles on Charles Koch and his late brother David include: Koch Brothers, Americans for Prosperity, Stand Together Chamber of Commerce, Stand Together, Koch Family Foundations, Koch Universities, and I360.

Koch Donor Summits and Known Attendees

January 2019, Indian Wells, California

At a luxury resort in the California desert, 634 donors who are committed to giving $100,000 dollars or more to Koch Network organizations. Of those 634, 181 are new donors this year. Reports from the summit say that the Network decided to take a more "politically muted tone than in years past." Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin, and Senators Ben Sasse and Mike Lee were slated to be in attendance.[4] Divisions between the Koch Network and the GOP were apparent as the Network stated intention to curtail partisan efforts within politics and the RNC stated "it does not plan to renew a data-sharing agreement with the Koch network for the 2020 cycle, after years of working in tandem to enrich voter files for GOP campaigns and state parties."[5]

January 2017, Indian Wells, California

At the 2017 Koch Donor Summit in California, the Koch network announced that they plan to spend between "$300 million and $400 million to influence politics and public policy over the next two years."[6] Most of the money will be used to fund the astroturf efforts of Koch groups like Americans for Prosperity, Generation Opportunity, Libre Initiative, and Concerned Veterans for America.[6] Over 550 donors were in attendance for the summit with each willing to contribute at least $100,000 a year to the network.[6]

Elected officials in attendance at Indian Wells included: Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker, Arizona Governor Doug Ducey, Illinois Governor Bruce Rauner, Missouri Attorney General Josh Hawley, Sen. Patrick J. Toomey (PA), Sen. David Perdue (GA), Sen. Ben Sasse (NE), Sen. Mike Lee (UT) and Sen. James Lankford (OK), Rep. Jason Chaffetz (UT) and Rep. Marsha Blackburn (TN).[7] Nobody from the Trump administration was reported to be in attendance.

July-August 2016, Colorado Springs, Colorado

2016 Koch Summit Reading list, Page 1
2016 Koch Summit Reading list, Page 2

Charles Koch and his network will not support Secretary of State Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump in the 2016 US presidential election, he stressed at the Koch donor summit in Colorado Springs, Colorado, July 30-August 1, 2016.[8] Koch Industries general council and senior vice president, Mark Holden said that, "from a values, and beliefs and policy perspective," neither candidate interests the Kochs.[8] Instead, the massive Koch donor network is "focused on the Senate."[8] Americans for Prosperity president Tim Phillips echoed Holden when he was quoted by CBS News as saying, "We're not engaged on the presidential."[9]

The AP reported that,

"The weekend's agenda for the estimated 400 donors gathered in Colorado Springs featured a series of policy discussions and appearances from several elected officials in addition to (Paul) Ryan: Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker, Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin, Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey, Texas Sen. John Cornyn, Colorado Sen. Cory Gardner, South Carolina Sen. Tim Scott, Utah Sen. Mike Lee, Rep. Mike Pompeo of Kansas. Rep Jason Chaffetz of Utah and Rep. Mike Coffman of Colorado."[8]

Koch said at the meeting that the donor network will spend roughly $750 million in the 2016 election cycle.[8] Matea Gold of the Washington Post wrote that roughly $250 million of this will be used to finance "the policy and political campaigns of groups such as Americans for Prosperity, Freedom Partners Action Fund, Concerned Veterans for America, the Libre Initiative and Generation Opportunity.[10]

"Unprecedented" Spending Plans for 2016 Election Cycle

At the January 2015 Koch network meeting, it was revealed that the network planned to spend $889 million on the 2016 election campaign, a goal the New York Times called "unprecedented" and which "would put it on track to spend nearly as much as the campaigns of each party’s presidential nominee."[11]

In October 2015, the network had reportedly "raised and ha[d] commitments for about $600m," and donors associated with the network had contributed at least $20 million to Super PACs supporting Republican candidates, The Guardian reported, including:

"Arizonan Randy Kendrick, a wealthy conservative who has donated $100,000 to a pro-Rubio Super Pac and is also a leading fundraiser for his campaign committee in her home state of Maryland. Kendrick is a regular attendee at the Kochs’s semiannual retreats.
"Ken Griffin, who runs Citadel, a large Chicago hedge fund, and has donated to Koch network projects. Griffin also chipped in $100,000 to the pro-Rubio Super Pac, and $100,000 to the pro-Jeb Bush super Pac, Right to Rise USA.
"Hedge-fund mogul Robert Mercer, a big donor to the Koch network, who poured $11m into the pro-Cruz Pac, Keep the Promise I, of which $500,000 was shipped to the Fiorina-supporting Super Pac, Carly for America.
"Helen Schwab, the wife of investor Charles Schwab, a longtime donor to the Koch network, who gave $1.5m to the Jeb Bush-supporting Super Pac, Right to Rise USA."[12]

August 2015, Dana Point, California

The Koch network held its 2015 summer meeting July 31-August 2 at the St. Regis Monarch Beach luxury resort in Dana Point, California. According to Politico, about 450 donors attended. Attendees included several Republican candidates for President: former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, Texas Senator Ted Cruz, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard Carly Fiorina, Florida Senator Marco Rubio, and Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker.[13]

Politico also reported that several elected officials in attendance spoke about the influence of the Koch's donor network. Arizona Governor Doug Ducey "recalled that he attended a previous conference as a donor before being elected to his state’s top office last year. 'Every time I’ve been invited to this conference, I’ve benefited from this conference,' he said." Senators Ben Sasse (R-NE), Tim Scott (R-SC), and Dan Sullivan (R-AK), all first elected in 2014, "credited Koch network donors for helping the GOP take control of the Senate that year. 'Your help over the last election cycle produced the numbers that we have today,. Scott said [...] 'The major contributions and investments that you have made have played a major role."

Click here for a transcript of Charles Koch's speech.

Others reportedly in attendance included:

Politico also reported that New York hedge fund tycoon Robert Mercer was a Koch network donor.[13]

Controversy Over "Strings Attached" to Media Access

This was the first summit that allowed major newsmedia to attend, but only after reporters agreed to certain conditions. Nine media organizations reportedly agreed: Associated Press, Bloomberg News, CNN, Politico, Time Magazine, USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and The Washington Times.[16]

Politico reported that it attended the summit "on the condition that donors spotted there not be named unless they agreed to be identified." One of its staff members, Mike Allen, also conducted a set of on-stage interviews with presidential candidates during the summit.[13]

Michael Calderone of The Huffington Post raised concerns about the restrictions: "The problem is that the ground rules could restrict journalists from reporting what's right in front of their eyes... So it’s possible journalists end up reporting largely what the event sponsors want, such as fiery speeches and candidate remarks criticizing Democrats, but less on the power brokers attending who play key behind-the-scenes roles in the 2016 election."[17]

The Undercurrent, which was also at the resort but "was not granted any special access," criticized media for agreeing to the restrictions, writing, "The presence of major media companies at the retreat lends the Koch operation the appearance of transparency, essentially white-washing activities that are corrosive to American democracy."[16]

January 2015, Palm Springs, California

According to Politico, the Koch network planned to hold its winter meeting the weekend of January 23 at a hotel in Palm Springs, California. Sources told Politico that Republican politicians including "Sens. Ted Cruz of Texas, Rand Paul of Kentucky and Marco Rubio of Florida, and Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin received coveted invitations to speak to the vaunted network assembled by the billionaire industrialist megadonors Charles and David Koch."[18] Walker's plans to attend were confirmed by a campaign spokesperson.[19]

At the meeting, it was revealed that the network planned to spend $889 million on the 2016 election campaign, a goal the New York Times called "unprecedented" and which "would put it on track to spend nearly as much as the campaigns of each party’s presidential nominee."[11]

“It’s no wonder the candidates show up when the Koch brothers call,” said David Axelrod, a former senior adviser to Mr. Obama. “That’s exponentially more money than any party organization will spend. In many ways, they have superseded the party.”[11]

June 2014, Dana Point, California

The June 2014 Koch conference appears to have been held at the St. Regis Monarch Beach Resort in Dana Point, near San Diego, California. The entire hotel was reserved under the name "T&R Sales Meeting" for the weekend of June 14-17, and "guests who weren’t part of the conference [...] were escorted out of the hotel by security on Saturday afternoon."[20] Reporters who were among those escorted out reported that the conference theme was "American Courage, Our Commitment to a Free Society" and attendees appeared to be discussing new Common Core education standards and the IRS investigation of political non-profits.[20] A new super PAC, Freedom Partners Action Fund, was also announced at the summit, according to Politico. It "aims to spend more than $15 million in the 2014 midterm campaigns."[21]

Reportedly present at the summit were "James Davis, former communications director and chief spokesman for the 2012 Republican National Convention" and affiliated with Freedom Partners, "Carl Anderson, former chairman and CEO of Arrow International Inc. and current board member and independent director at Carpenter Technology Corp," David Koch, and Charles Koch.[20] The speaker list was reported to include Republican Sen. Marco Rubio and Dr. Charles Murray, author of The Bell Curve.[22]

Groups reported to be in attendance included:[23]

Audio of Koch Politicians

Audio recordings of some portions of the meeting were obtained by The Undercurrent, Huffington Post, and The Nation. The recordings included speeches by three Republican Senate candidates: Iowa state Sen. Joni Ernst, Arkansas Rep. Tom Cotton, and Colorado Rep. Cory Gardner,[24] and remarks by Senate minority leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY).[25]

Ernst credited the Koch network with advancing his career, saying "But the exposure to this group and to this network and the opportunity to meet so many of you, that really started my trajectory." Cotton highlighted the role of Koch-funded Americans for Prosperity: ""Americans for Prosperity in Arkansas has played a critical role in turning our state from a one-party Democratic state [inaudible] building the kind of constant engagement to get people in the state involved in their communities."[24]

McConnell attacked campaign finance limits, saying that "The worst day of my political life was when President George W. Bush signed McCain-Feingold into law in the early part of his first administration." He also described plans to "go after" Democrats by using attaching riders to spending bills. "No money can be spent to do this or to do that. We’re going to go after them on healthcare, on financial services, on the Environmental Protection Agency, across the board [inaudible]. All across the federal government, we’re going to go after it."[25]

The recordings and transcripts are available here: McConnell's remarks, Senate candidates, Koch operatives.

List of Attendees

According to conference documents obtained by The Nation, the following people participated in the June 2014 summit:[26][27]

Name(s) Industry Notes
Charles Koch Koch Industries
David Koch Koch Industries
Rep. Tom Cotton Republican, Arkansas
Rep. Cory Gardner Republican, Colorado
Rep. Jim Jordan Republican, Ohio
Sen. Mitch McConnell Republican, Kentucky
Sen. Marco Rubio Republican, Florida
State Sen. [Joni Ernst]] Republican, Iowa
Rich DeVos co-founder of Amway, owner of the Orlando Magic
Gavin Herberg pharmaceuticals founder, Allergan; major funder of ALEC
Mark Holden law senior vice president, general counsel for Koch Industries
Nancy Pfotenhauer president, MediaSpeak Strategies; former director Koch Industries Washington office
Karen Steward director of research, Freedom Partners
Hubbel Relat former associate director, Center for Freedom and Prosperity Foundation
Amity Shlaes writer
Charles Murray political scientist author, The Bell Curve
Michael Lomax president and CEO, United Negro College Fund
Jeff Crank media radio host, formerly Americans for Prosperity, Aegis Strategic
Dale Gibbens vice president, Koch Industries
Philip Ellender president and COO, Koch Companies Public Sector
John Hardin Charles G. Koch Foundation
Marc Short Freedom Partners
Norman Reimer law National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers
Daniel Turner Generation Opportunity
Jose Mallea The Libre Initiative
Teresa Oelke Americans for Prosperity
Michael Palmer leading session on "Voter Turnout:Using Data to Target, Persuade, and Get-out-the vote"
Emily Seidel leading session on "Voter Turnout:Using Data to Target, Persuade, and Get-out-the vote"
Brian Hooks Mercatus Center, executive director
Chad Thevenot Institute for Humane Studies, COO
Derek Johnson Charles G. Koch Foundation, program manager for higher education
Dr. Victor Davis Hanson American military historian, writer for National Review
Dr. Will Ruger Mercatus Center
Steve Lombardo Koch Industries
Adam Millsap possibly: former Koch Intern, intern at Reason Foundation
Diana Thomas Mercatus Center
Jim Otteson Fund for American Studies, BB&T Center for the Study of Capitalism at Wake Forest
Ryan Stowers Charles G. Koch Foundation, director of higher education programs
Evan Feinberg Generation Opportunity
Rachel Campos-Duffy The Libre Initiative
Marty Zupan Institute for Humane Studies
Tim Phillips Americans for Prosperity, president
Phil Cox possibly: Republican Governors Association
Jeff Frazee Young Americans for Liberty
Derrick Sontag Americans for Prosperity
Doug Ducey State Treasurer, Arizona
Pete Hegseth Concerned Veterans for America, CEO
Peter Schweizer Hoover Institution, Government Accountability Institute
Kevin Gentry Charles G. Koch Foundation
Justine Fink Americans for Prosperity
Jennifer Stefano Americans for Prosperity

February 2014, Palm Springs, California

This is a list of attendees at the Koch brothers' semiannual conference held in Palm Springs in February of 2014.[28] The list was discovered by a hotel guest who provided it to Mother Jones. The document not only lists prominent attendees of the conference, but also executives of Koch Industries, Americans for Prosperity, and Freedom Partners with whom they were scheduled to meet in one-on-one conversations. According to Mother Jones, "the meeting list illustrates the interwoven nature of the Koch brothers' corporate, political, and philanthropic activities" and "suggests a close collaboration between officials of Koch Industries, AFP, and Freedom Partners, whose staff and board are stacked with numerous current and former Koch Industries employees."[28]

List of Attendees

The February 2014 Koch semiannual conference attendees were:[28]

Name(s) Industry Notes
Carl Berg Real estate
Ronnie Cameron Mountaire Corporation
Charles ChandlerBanking CEO of Intrust Bank
John ChildsFinance J.W. Childs & Associates
Steve Clark
Jamie Coulter
Bob Fettig Tankcraft
Steve Fettig Tankcraft
Paul Foster
George Gibbs
Leslie Gilliam
Richard GilliamMiningCumberland Resources Corporation, Endurance Gold
Ken Griffin Citadel
John Griffin Blue Ridge Capital
Dick Haworth Haworth
Jerry Haydenformer head of Peacock Engineering
George Jenkins
Richard Kayne Kayne Anderson Capital Advisors
Dan Kirby Kirby Financial
Fred Klipsch Klipsch Group
Frank Kozel Keystone Energy Oil & Gas Inc.
Francis "Franc" Lee First Tower, LLC.
Robert Luddy CativeAire Systems Inc.
Hugh Maclellan Maclellan Foundation
Kent McCarthy
Andrew Miller
Cecil O'Brate Palmer Manufacturing & Tank
Verl Purdy AGDATA Inc.
Tom Rastin Ariel Corporation
George Records Hoover Institution
Robert Rowling TRT Holdings
Ted Saunders
John Schnatter Papa John's International
Tom Smith
Craig Snider
Jaime Snider
Tina Snider
Dian Stai Owen Healthcare Inc.
Jim Stephenson Yancey Bros. Co., Americans for Prosperity board member
Jim Von Ehr Zyvex Labs
Debra Waller Jockey International Inc.
Lew Ward Ward Petroleum Corporation
Dick WeissWells Capital Management
Dean Williams
Karen Wright Ariel Corporation

List of Koch "players"

These are the Koch "players" who were scheduled to meet with the above attendees.

Koch "players"
Name(s) Organization
Charles Koch Koch Industries
David Koch Koch Industries
Michael Lanzara Freedom Partners
Steve Feilmeier Koch Industries
Kevin Gentry Freedom Partners
Jeff Noble Freedom Partners
Tim Phillips Americans for Prosperity
Chris Fink Americans for Prosperity
Teresa Oelke Americans for Prosperity
David Fladeboe Americans for Prosperity
Brett Hinkey Freedom Partners
Daniel Garza The Libre Initiative
Chase Koch Koch Fertilizer
Richard Fink Koch Industries
Ryan Stowers Charles G. Koch Foundation
Brian Hooks Mercatus Center
Marc Short Freedom Partners
Scott Hagerstrom Americans for Prosperity Michigan
Jennifer Stefano Americans for Prosperity Pennsylvania
Tommy Von der Heydt Americans for Prosperity
Corey Lewandowski Americans for Prosperity
Slade O'Brien Americans for Prosperity Florida
John Hardin Charles G. Koch Foundation
Michael Palmer i360
Derek Johnson Charles G. Koch Foundation
Nathan Nascimento Freedom Partners
James Davis Freedom Partners
Luke Hilgemann Americans for Prosperity

August 2013, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Politico reported that the summer 2013 Koch summit was held just outside Albuquerque "at the Hyatt Regency Tamaya Resort in Bernalillo, N.M., which was completely booked and had its entrances blocked to traffic."[29] Attendees reportedly included Republican House Majority leader Eric Cantor, Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI), New Mexico Gov. Susana Martinez, and Arthur Brooks of the American Enterprise Institute.

April 2013, Palm Springs, California

The winter 2013 meeting was held in late April. Politico attributed the schedule change to a need to accommodate an audit of 2012 election spending results.[30] The New York Times reported that attendees included Dr. Ben Carson, South Carolina Gov. Nikki Haley, Ohio Gov. John Kasich, Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX), and Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY)[31]

June 2012, San Diego, California

According to Politico, the Koch brothers hosted a summit in San Diego, California the weekend of June 23, 2012. However, "[t]he specific location of the San Diego summit could not be determined. And a Koch spokesman declined to comment on details of the summit."[32]

January 2012, Indian Wells, California

The winter 2012 summit was reportedly held at the Renaissance Esmeralda resort in Indian Wells, California.[33] The summit is reported to have raised as much as $150 million in donations from attendees.[32]

June 2011, Vail, Colorado

Politico reported that Texas Governor Rick Perry and Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell, both Republicans, attended the June 2011 Koch retreat in Colorado.[34] Also reported to be in attendance were Wisconsin businessman Fred Young, a major donor to Republican Governor Scott Walker,[35] and Andrew P. Napolitano, a Fox News host and former New Jersey Supreme Court judge.[36] A full list of attendees is not available for this meeting.

Donors highlighted at Vail summit

Audio of the 2011 Vail summit leaked to Mother Jones included recordings of speeches in which Charles and David Koch "name some of the "great partners" who have contributed millions of dollars to their causes."[36] As reported by Mother Jones, the following people were acknowledged at the summit for donating at least $1 million to Koch-approved causes:[37]

Major Donors
Name(s) Organization
John Childs CEO, JW Childs Associates
Dean and Joan Cortopassi
Joseph Craft Alliance Resource Partners
Rich DeVos and Helen DeVos Amway, Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation
Dick Farmer Cintas Corporation
Foster Friess Friess Associates
Jerry Fullinwider and Leah Fullinwider Hillwood International Energy
Richard Gilliam and Leslie Gilliam Cumberland Resources Corporation and Endurance Gold
Ken Griffin and Anne Dias Griffin Citadel and Aragon Global Management
Richard Haworth and Ethie Haworth Haworth
Diane Hendricks ABC Supply roofing company
Ethelmae Humphreys Tamco Building Products, Cato Institute
Kenneth Levy and Frayda Levin Jacobs Levy equity management, Americans for Prosperity, Club for Growth, Motion Picture Institute
Elaine Marshall, widow of E. Pierce Marshall Family ties to Koch Industries[36]
Art Pope Americans for Prosperity
Corbin Robertson Natural Resource Partners
Karen Wright Ariel Foundation, Ariel Corporation, American Petroleum Institute
Tom Rastin Ariel Foundation, Ariel Corporation
Services Group of America
Ron Cameron Mountaire Corporation
Harold Hamm Continental Resources
Jerry Hayden and Marilyn Hayden Peacock Engineering
Virginia James major donor to Club for Growth
John Menard Menards
John Moran Dyson-Kissner-Moran Corporation, Republican National Finance Committee
Charles Schwab Charles Schwab Corporation
Paul Singer Elliott Management
John Templeton, Jr. and Josephine Templeton John Templeton Foundation

January 2011, Rancho Mirage, California

According to Politico, the January 2011 summit "raised a reported $49 million in pledged donations" to groups like Americans for Prosperity.[34] A full list of attendees is not available for this meeting. Koch Industries promised to match all attendees' donations at the Rancho Mirage meetings.[38]

June 2010, Aspen, Colorado

The June 2010 meeting of the Koch network was held June 27-28 in Aspen, Colorado. The list of attendees below is based on a memo obtained by ThinkProgress that included a schedule and attendee list for the Aspen summit.[39] Koch Industries promised to match all attendees' donations at the Aspen meetings.[38]

List of Attendees

Note: the geographic locations provided below may contain inaccuracies.

The June 2010 Koch strategy meeting attendees were:[39]

Name(s) Industry Notes
Jack Anderson and Rose Marie Anderson Finance Culver Corporation, Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson Foundation - Financial Advisor
Neil Anderson and Amy Fisher-Smith Runs Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson Foundation
Phil Anschutz and Nancy Anschutz Investment Industrialist, Owner, Weekly Standard , Examiner newspapers; Denver, CO
Cliff Asness Investment AQR Capital Management
Nate Bachman and Lynda Bachman Finance The Bachman Group, Cincinnati OH - Financial Advisor
Whitney Ball Think Tank Owner of DonorsTrust, a firm that enables anonymous gifts to front groups
Frank Baxter and Kathy Baxter Banking Ambassador Frank E. Baxter is Chairman Emeritus of NYC-based Jefferies and Company , Inc., a global investment bank focusing on mid-cap companies. Overseer, Hoover Institution. Los Angeles CA
Steve Bechtel and Betty Bechtel Engineering Owns the Bechtel Group (Corporation), Largest engineering company in United States
E. Bernard Blasingame and Margaret Blasingame Manufacturing President and owner of Aqua Dynamics Systems (water purification), Adamsville, TN
Alan Boeckmann and Lisa Boeckmann Oil/Engineering/Construction CEO Fluor Corporation, Orange County, CA
Boysie Bollinger Shipping/Commerce Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Bollinger Shipyards in Louisiana and Texas (builds vessels for Coast Guard)
Patrick Broe and Paula Broe Real Estate Founder and CEO of Denver-based real estate asset management firm, The Broe Group
David Brown and Ann Brown Think Tank, funder Heritage Foundation, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
Bob Buford and Martha Buford Oil C. Robert Buford has been President and owner of Zenith Drilling Corporation, Wichita, KS
Tim Busch Likely Irvine-based Timothy R. Busch, Pacific Hospitality Group CEO, Catholic University of America trustee, Legatus[1] (Catholic CEOs, Orange County & Napa chapters)
Shelby Bush and Nell Bush Energy Vice President, Legal and Administration – Hillwood Energy (a Perot company)
Charlies Chandler and Marla Chandler Likely Charles Q. Chandler IV of Wichita KS-based Intrust Bank
John Childs Investment Chairman and CEO of J.W. Childs and Associates, Boston MA
Paul Clifton and Lea Clifton Runs Robert and Marie Hansen Family Foundation
Susie Coelhoe Media founder and CEO of Susie Coelho Enterprises Inc.
Bill Cooper and Kristin Tollefson Finance/Banking CEO of TCF Financial, Wayzata MI
Dino Cortopassi and Joan Cortopassi Stockton businessman
Joe Craft Coal Joseph W. Craft III is president, chief executive officer and director of Tulsa OK-based Alliance Resource Partners LP
Alex Cranberg Energy Denver-based Aspect Holdings , LLC – Chairman; University of Texas regent
Eric Crown and Isabella King Finance (venture capital) Retired CEO, Insight Enterprises, Phoenix AZ
Kevin Crutchfield Coal Kevin S. Crutchfield serves as Chief Executive Officer of Alpha Coal Sales Co., LLC, Latrobe PA near Pittsburgh
Ravenell Curry and Beth Curry Likely Manhattan Institute trustee Ravenel Curry III.
Jim Dannenbaum and Shirley Dannenbaum Engineering Mr. Dannenbaum, Chairman of Dannenbaum Engineering Corporation, Houston, TX
Rich DeVos and Helen DeVos Business Founder and CEO of Amway, near Grand Rapids, Michigan
Ned Diefenthal and Nancy Diefenthal Metairie, LA-based former owner of Southern Recycling
Jim Patterson and Dorothy Patterson Oil Gulf Stream Petroleum
Dan Peters and Kellie Peters Non-for Profit Daniel S. Peters is president of the Ruth and Lovett Peters Foundation in Cincinnati, Ohio
Tom Petrie Banking Co-founder of BofA Merrill Lynch Petrie Divestiture Advisors
Dixon Doll and Carol Doll Technology Co-Founder and General Partner of Menlo Park CA-based Doll Capital Management(DCM)
Karl Eller and Stevie Eller Advertising The Eller Company billboards
Ron Erickson and Kris Erickson Retail Ronald A. Erickson is the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Holiday Companies
Melvyn Estrin and Suellen Estrin Natural Gas Director of WGL Holdings INC
Dick Farmer Richard T. "Dick" Farmer is chairman of Cintas
Peter Farrell Biomed Founder of Resmed
Jim Ferrell and Zibbie Ferrell Fuel Oil Ferrellgas Partners , L.P. engages in the distribution and sale of propane and related equipment primarily in the United States.
Dave Fettig Natural Gas Tank Craft, Duracraft Fuel energy
Bob Fettig Natural Gas Tank Craft, Duracraft Fuel energy
Steve Fettig Natural Gas Tank Craft, Duracraft Fuel energy
Jerry Finger and Nanette Finger Investment management Managing Partner, Finger Interests LTD, Houston TX
Budd Florkiewicz and Lauri Florkiewicz Manufacturing Foam Fabricators, Scottsdale, AZ
Charlie Fote and Kaye Lynn Fote Finance Founder and CEO, Fotec Group LLC, Denver, CO
Randy Foutch and Jean Foutch Oil Chairman and CEO, Laredo Petroleum , Inc., Tulsa, OK
Foster Friess Investment Mr. Foster Stephen Friess is the Founder and Chairman of Friess Associates , LLC; was Executive Committee member for the far right Council for National Policy[2]
Steve Friess and Polly Friess Son and daughter-in-law of Foster Friess
Jerry Fullinwider and Leah Fullinwider Energy/Petroleum Vice Chairman, Hillwood International Energy, a Perot company (Ross Perot Jr. is Chairman) (in Texas, Kurdistan, Moscow, Amman)
Richard Gilliam and Leslie Gilliam Coal Richard Gilliam has been President of Norton, VA-based Cumberland Resources Corporation since 1993.
Susan Gore Think Tank Founder, Wyoming Liberty Group; her "multibillion dollar family company W.L. Gore & Associates Inc. developed the high performance fabric Gore-Tex... Her brother, David Gore, co-founded a similar think tank organization in Oregon called the Cascade Policy Institute in 1991"[40]
Oliver Jr. and Carolyn Grace Jr. Med and Telecom President and chief executive officer of Anderson Group , Inc.,
Judson Green and Joyce Green Energy and Med Mr. Judson C. Green is the President and Chief Executive Officer of NAVTEQ Corp.
Ken Griffin and Anne Griffin Investment Banking Founder and CEO of Chicago-based Citadel Investment Group
Fred Hamilton and Jane Hamilton Oil Mr. Frederic C. Hamilton served as the President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of BHP Petroleum , Hamilton Oil Company and various Hamilton Oil Corporation subsidiaries and affiliates (Denver-based)
Bob Hawk and Mary Sue Hawk Telecommunications, venture capital President of Hawk Communications (also Venture Partner at Doll Capital Management (DCM); "director of Covad Communications , Centillium Communications, and several private high-technology companies."
Dick Haworth and Ethie Haworth Retail Head of Holland, MI-based Haworth Furniture , Multi-national corporation, 3rd largest corporate furniture company in US
Robin Hayes and Barbara Hayes Government Former North Carolina Congressman
Dan Heard and Carolyn Heard Manufacturing Executive Officer of Louisiana-based John H. Carter Co.,
Diane Hendricks Manufacturing Husband of the late Ken Hendricks (ABC Supply Co., building materials)
Steve Hennessy and Regina Hennessy Auto Sales Auto Sales, Atlanta, GA
James Higgins and Heather Higgins Think Tank James Higgins is a fellow and trustee of the Claremont Institute, and a principal at NY-based investment mgmt firm New Vernon Capital LLC;
Heather Higgins is president and CEO of Independent Women's Voice, the 501(c)(4) sister organization of the Independent Women’s Forum
Paul Hill Oil Paul J. Hill serves as CEO and has been President of Harvard Developments Inc. since 1978; CEO and President of The Hill Companies; Regina, Saskatchewan
John Hotchkis and Joan Hotchkis Education, Finance Board of Directors for Teach for America UC Berkeley; Ramajal LLC, Hotchkis and Wiley
Allan Hubbard and Kathy Hubbard Chemicals and Manufacturing Founder and Chief Executive Officer, E & A Industries, Inc., Indianapolis, IN
Stan Hubbard and Karen Hubbard Communications Executive Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, St. Paul, MI-based Hubbard Broadcasting , Inc.
Ethelmae Humphreys Think Tank Cato Institute
Manley Johnson and Mary Johnson Political Consultant Manuel H. "Manley" Johnson served as the vice chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the mid-1980s. Co-chairman and senior partner at DC-based financial market advisory firm Johnson Smick International
Merritt Johnson
Gerry O’Shaughnessy and Priscilla O’Shaughnessy Oil Gerald Eugene O’Shaughnessy Co-founded Geopark Holding Limited in 2002; Wichita, KS
Michael O’Shaughnessy Technology Petters Consumer Brands , LLC develops consumer electronics and appliances.
Tim O’Shaughnessy Media Hungry Machine , Inc., doing business as LivingSocial.com, is a social discovery and cataloging network.
Marshall Johnson
Kyle Johnstone and Kirsten Johnstone
Mike Kasser and Beth Kasser Real Estate President, Holualoa Inc
Ken Kendrick and Randy Kendrick Education/Technology Chairman, Datatel
Phil Kerpen and Joanna Kerpen Advocacy Group/Think Tank VP of Policy, Americans for Prosperity
Gerry Kingen and Kathryn Kingen Restauranteur Red Robin, Happy Guests International, Seattle WA
Scott Kirkpatrick Investor Owner/Partner of Jackson, WY-based Teton Capital Advisors
Charles Koch and Liz Koch Koch Industries
Chase Koch and Annie Koch Koch Industries
David Koch and Julia Koch Koch Industries
Elizabeth Koch Koch Industries
Bob Koch and Cindy Koch Koch Industries
Bob Kohlhepp Manufacturing/Services Vice Chairman, Cintas Corp.
Dennis Kuester Banking, Paper Dennis J. Kuester, retired CEO of Marshall & Ilsley Bank (M&I) in Milwaukee, WI; director of Wausau Paper
Andrew Kupersmith Consultant MD, Cardiology Consultants
Andre Lacy Investment Chairman, Lacy Diversified Industries, Indianapolis IN; board member, Patterson Companies(vet,dental,rehab)
Ken Langone and Elaine Langone Retail Invemed, Home Depot
Jay Lapeyre and Sally Lapeyre Services Laitram Corp
Ken Levy and Frayda Levy Investment JLM Investment Mgmt
Tom Love Retail CEO, President, Love’s Country Stores
Bob Luddy Manufacturing President, Captive Aire Systems
Fred Malek and Marlene Malek Investment Management Thayer Capital Partners
Elaine Marshall Homemaker
Pierce Marshall Administrative Management MAROPCO
Preston Marshall
Bill Mayer Health Care MD, Mayer & Cope Family Practice, NY
Glen Meakem and Diane Meakem Business Solutions CEO, Freemarkets Inc.
Ed Meese Think Tank Heritage Foundation
Lew Meibergen and Suzy Meibergen Goods/Services President, Johnston Enterprises/WG Johnston Grain Co
Don Meyers and Deede Meyers Attorney Self Employed
Jerry Milbank and Caroline Milbank Investment Management CEO/Principal, Milbank Winthrop & Co.
Jack Miller and Goldie Miller Retail CEO/President, Quill Corp.
Mark Mix Advocacy Group President, National Right to Work Committee
Joe Moeller and Mary Moeller Koch Industries Vice Chairman
David Murfin Energy President, Murfin Drilling Co.
Walter Negley and Suzette Negley Director of the Brown Foundation (from George Brown of Houston's Brown & Root construction)
Kurt Pfotenhauer and Nancy Pfotenhauer Media President of MediaSpeak Strategies/former political commentator on Fox News , CNN and MSNBC and former Senior Policy Advisor and National Spokesperson with the 2008 John McCain presidential campaign
Art Pope and Kathy Pope Goods/Services Senior Exec, Variety Wholesaler; board member, Americans for Prosperity and John Locke Foundation; Pope Foundation
Corbin Robertson and Barbara Robertson Energy Coal baron; President, Quintana Minerals Corp and Natural Resource Partners; director of global warming inaction front groups (& media campaign) CO2 Is Green and Plants Need CO2
Richard Roder and Karin Hsu Construction Management CEO, Cmt-Construction Management, Addison TX
Gary Rogers and Kathleen Rogers Goods Former CEO, Dreyer’s Grand Ice Cream
Durk Rorie Manufacturing United Air Specialists air purification systems, Cincinnati
Chris Rufer Goods/Manufacturing Morningstar Company (harvests, processes, cans, and ships most California tomatoes.)
Peter Schiff and Martha O’Brien Investor Schiff : Euro Pacific Capital Inc. (son of Irwin Schiff of the United States tax protester movement)
Steve Schwarzman and Christine Schwarzman Financial Services CEO/founder, Blackstone Group
Rick Sharp and Sherry Sharp Retail Former CEO, Circuit City
Mike Simmonds and Lin Simmonds Services CEO, Simmonds Restaurant Mgm
Peter Smith Services CEO, Services Group of America, Scottsdale AZ
Dick Strong Investment Services Strong/Corneliuson Capital Mgmt
Ray Thompson and Ladeline Thompson Manufacturing President/CEO, Semitool; Raymon F. Thompson owns the airplane that Tea Party Patriots Jenny-Beth Martin and Mark Meckler flew in to rallies, in 2010[41]
Lynn Tilton Investment Management CEO, Patriarch Partners LLC
Dave True and Melanie True Oil Partner, True Oil, LLC
Steve Twist Services
VP and General Counsel for Services Group of America, Scottsdale, AZ
Jim Ehr and Gayla Von Ehr Research/Development CEO, Zyvex Corp
Rick Waller and Debra Waller Manufacturing Rick Waller owns Rollmeister Inc in Neenah, WI, serving the paper industry;
Debra Waller is CEO of Wisconsin-based underwear maker Jockey International, and spent five years on the Board of Directors for Marshall & Ilsley Bank[42] in Milwaukee, WI
Bill Walton and Sarah Walton Real Estate Allied Capital Corp
Lew Ward and Myra Ward Oil Ward Petroleum Corporation owns and operates wells. It engages in oil and gas exploration and production. The company was founded in 1963 and is based in Enid, Oklahoma.
Dick Weekley Real Estate Weekley Properties; chairman, Texans for Lawsuit Reform
Fred Wehba and Susie Wehba Real Estate LA-based private real estate investment firm BentleyForbes
Nestor Weigand and Darcy Buehler Real Estate JP Weigand & Sons Real Estate, Wichita, KS
Dick Weiss and Mary Beth Weiss Investment? Wells Fargo and Hawthorne Ranch, near Chicago IL
Howard Wilkins and Rhonda Wilkins (??) Insurance C. Howard Wilkins Jr. founded Maverick Development Corporation (restaurant management), Wichita KS [3]; earlier, Pizza Hut, and ambassador to Netherlands


Diversified Insurance
Don Wills and Sue Wills Oil, Banking Partner in Wills Oil Company and Adams-Wills Oil Company, Texas
Larry Winnerman and Lorraine Winnerman Real Estate Win Win Enterprises, Aspen CO
Joe Woodford Manufacturing Woodford Manufacturing, Woodford Foundation, Colorado Springs
Earl Wright Finance AMG National Trust, Alliance for Choice and Education (ACE) trustee, Colorado
Karen Wright and Tom Rastin Energy/Manufacturing Tom Rastin, vice president of marketing and engineering, Ariel Corp (natural gas compressors, Ohio) – Karen Wright, Ariel CEO
Cliff Yonce and Susan Yonce Investment Banking Goldman Sachs
Fred Young and Sandra Young Manufacturing Fred Young Jr., Former Owner, Young Radiator Company of Racine, WI ; Cato Institute board member, trustee of the Reason Foundation

List of Presenters

The follow participants were listed as presenters in the Aspen program.

Name(s) Industry Notes
Michael Barone Media Fox News
Glenn Beck Media Fox News
Arthur Brooks Think Tank President, American Enterprise Institute
John Bryan
Tim Carney Media Political Columnist, Washington Examiner
David Chavern Lobbyist Executive Vice President and COO at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Jeff Crank Americans For Prosperity / Radio Pundit AFP State Director
Karl Crow Policy Analyst Capital Research Center, Washington DC; Themis
Veronique de Rugy Think Tank Senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center
Annie Dickerson Real Estate/Finance CB Richard Ellis analyst
Richard Fink Koch Industries Director of Georgia-Pacific , EVP of Koch Industries
Gretchen Hamel Communications Head of 501(c)(4) Public Notice, founder of PR firm Endeavour Global Strategies; former press assistant for J.C. Watts of Oklahoma
Phil Kerpen Advocacy Group/Think Tank VP of Policy, Americans for Prosperity
Charles Krauthammer
Jerry Milbank Investment Management CEO/Principal, Milbank Winthrop & Co.
Mark Mix Advocacy Group President, National Right to Work Committee
Steve Moore Media member of the Wall Street Journal editorial board
Mina Nguyen
Larry Nichols and Polly Nichols Energy Executive Chairman, Devon Energy Corp
Sean Noble Political consulting Americans for Prosperity
Noble Associates (specializing in Campaign Management, Crisis Communications, Developing the Message, Grassroots Development & Deployment...), Phoenix AZ; Koch-supported Americans for Limited Government[43]
Tim Oelke and Teresa Oelke Advocacy Group/Construction Teresa – State Director of Americans for Prosperity , Tim – Crossland Construction Corp
Eric O’Keefe Front Group Sam Adams Alliance
Nancy Pfotenhauer Media President of MediaSpeak Strategies/former political commentator on Fox News , CNN and MSNBC and former Senior Policy Advisor and National Spokesperson with the 2008 John McCain presidential campaign
Tim Phillips Advocacy Group president, Americans for Prosperity
Ramesh Ponnuru Media Columnist, National Review (magazine)
Russ Roberts Economist George Mason University economics professor
Peter Schiff Investor Schiff : Euro Pacific Capital Inc. (son of Irwin Schiff of the United States tax protester movement)
Michael Sullivan Investment Services (???) CR Intrinsic Investors or not; since a
"Michael Quinn Sullivan is president and CEO of Empower Texans, and its premier project, Texans for Fiscal Responsibility."
Peter Wallison Think Tank Fellow, American Enterprise Institute
Bill Walton Real Estate Allied Capital Corp

Earlier Summits - Politicians, Supreme Court Justices, and Other Attendees

Charles Koch's invitation letter to the January 2011 summit also noted that previous guests have included politicians and Supreme Court justices. The politicians included Governors Haley Barbour and Bobby Jindal; Senators Jim DeMint and Tom Coburn and Representatives Mike Pence, Tom Price and Paul Ryan.[44]

Supreme Court Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas have attended these events. According to Salon, "Thomas claimed he just made "a brief drop-by" at the Koch brothers' January 2008 Palm Springs political retreat to give a talk; in fact he was reimbursed for four days of “transportation, meals and accommodations” by the Federalist Society.[45] The attendance of Thomas and Scalia has sparked debate over judicial ethics and the 2010 Citizens United decision.[46] Common Cause filed a petition with the Justice Department in January 2011 alleging a conflict of interest for these Justices, as David and Charles Koch operate foundations that contribute to political groups, which might benefit from relaxed campaign finance rules.[47] Common Cause has also noted that the Cato Institute, which Charles Koch founded, filed an amicus brief in Citizens United opposing campaign finance.[48] The Center for Competitive Politics also filed a brief in the case; the Center is headed by Bradley Smith, who is affiliated with the Institute for Humane Studies where Charles Koch is Chair of the board and funder.[49]

Ken Yontz, former chair and CEO of Sybron International, wrote that he has attended Koch seminars since 2005 in a 2015 op-ed in the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel.[50]

Articles and Resources

Related SourceWatch Articles

External Resources

External Articles


  1. Stephen Moore, "Private Enterprise," Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2006.
  2. Lee Fang, "MEMO: Health Insurance, Banking, Oil Industries Met With Koch, Chamber, Glenn Beck To Plot 2010 Election," ThinkProgress, October 20, 2010. Accessed June 30, 2010.
  3. Lee Fang, "EXCLUSIVE: Koch Brothers Convene Ultra-Secret Billionaires Meeting To Raise Funds, Plot Strategy," Republic Report, February 3, 2012. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  4. SALLY HO Muted political tone at largest Koch donor network meeting Associated Press January 26, 2019
  5. Michelle Ye Hee LEE [At Koch gathering, a turn away from partisan politics https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/at-koch-gathering-a-turn-away-from-partisan-politics/2019/01/28/5fcf3dac-22a2-11e9-90cd-dedb0c92dc17_story.html?utm_term=.7278b63e6fc1] Washington Post Jan 28, 2019
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Tina Sfondeles, Rauner attending Koch brothers’ summit in California, Chicago Sun-Times, January 29, 2017.
  7. Matea Gold and James Hohmann, Scott Walker tells Republicans: ‘It’s put up or shut up time’, Washington Post, January 30, 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Steve Peoples, Billionaire's aide says no plans to help Trump, Associated Press, July 30, 2016.
  9. AP, Charles Koch: "I can't support either candidate", CBS News, July 31, 2016.
  10. Matea Gold, Koch network seeks to defuse donor frustration over Trump rebuff, Washington Post, August 1, 2016.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Nicholas Confessore, "Koch Brothers’ Budget of $889 Million for 2016 Is on Par With Both Parties’ Spending," New York Times, January 26, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2015.
  12. Peter Stone, "Koch network donors have already shelled out $20m to GOP Super Pacs," The Guardian, October 6, 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Kenneth P. Vogel, "Koch love fest in California," Politico, August 3, 2015.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Kenneth P. Vogel, "Charles Koch: We're warriors 'seeking to right injustices'," Politico, August 1, 2015.
  15. Julie Bykowicz, "Scott Walker compares Koch donor conference to prior tea party rallies," Associated Press/Wisconsin State Journal, August 2, 2015.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Lauren Windsor, "Mainstream Media Won't Name Koch Donors, But We Will," The Undercurrent/Huffington Post, August 5, 2015.
  17. Michael Calderone, "Journalists Attend Private Koch Brothers Gathering, But Agree Not To Name Donors," Huffington Post, August 2, 2015.
  18. Kenneth P. Vogel, "4 GOP hopefuls expected to attend Koch event," Politico, January 21, 2015. Accessed January 21, 2015.
  19. Matthew DeFour and Scott Bauer, "Gov. Scott Walker attending private Koch brothers event," LaCrosse Tribune, January 21, 2015. Accessed January 21, 2015.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Joanne Faryon and Brad Racino, "Secret Summit: 24 Hours With The Koch Brothers," KPBS, June 16, 2014. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  21. Kenneth P. Vogel and Darren Goode, "Kochs launch new super PAC for midterm fight," Politico, June 16, 2014. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  22. Peter Stone, "Koch Brothers Unveil New Strategy at Big Donor Retreat," The Daily Beast, June 13, 2014. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  23. Leo Castaneda, Joanne Faryon, and Brad Racino, "Groups represented at the secret Koch brothers summit," inewsource, June 16, 2014. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Sam Stein, "At Koch Retreat, Top GOP Senate Candidates Credited Koch Network For Their Rise," Huffington Post, August 26, 2014. Accessed September 2, 2014.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Lauren Windsor, "Caught on Tape: What Mitch McConnell Complained About to a Roomful of Billionaires (Exclusive)," The Nation, August 26, 2014. Accessed September 2, 2014.
  26. Lauren Windsor, "Exclusive: Inside the Koch Brothers’ Secret Billionaire Summit," The Nation, June 17, 2014. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  27. The Nation, "The Koch Brothers' Secret Billionaire Summit," agenda document, accessed June 18, 2014.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Andy Kroll and Daniel Schulman, "The Koch Brothers Left a Confidential Document at Their Donor Conference," Mother Jones, February 5, 2014.
  29. Kenneth P. Vogel and Jake Sherman, Eric Cantor, Paul Ryan headlined Koch summit," Politico, August 7, 2013. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  30. Kenneth P. Vogel, "Koch World Reboots," Politico, February 20, 2013. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  31. Nicholas Confessore, "Koch Brothers Plan More Political Involvement for Their Conservative Network," New York Times, April 30, 2014. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Kenneth P. Vogel and Tarini Parti, "Inside Koch world," June 15, 2012. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  33. Amanda Terkel and Ryan Grim, "Koch Brothers, Allies Pledge $100 Million At Private Meeting To Beat Obama," The Huffington Post, Feburary 3, 2012. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Kenneth P. Vogel, "Bob McDonnell, Rick Perry at latest Koch brothers summit," Politico, June 26, 2011. Accessed June 9, 2014.
  35. Brendan Fischer, "Wealthy Wisconsin Heir Speaks at Koch Brothers Meeting," PR Watch, September 8, 2011. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 Brad Friedman, "Exclusive Audio: Inside the Koch Brothers' Secret Seminar," Mother Jones, September 6, 2011. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  37. Gavin Aronsen, "Exclusive: The Koch Brothers' Million-Dollar Donor Club," Mother Jones, September 6, 2011. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Lee Fang, "Exclusive: Koch Industries Promises To Double Money Raised This Weekend, 40% Of Donors Will Be New," ThinkProgress, January 27, 2011. Accessed June 17, 2014.
  39. 39.0 39.1 ClimateProgress, "MEMO: Health insurance, banking, oil industries met with Koch, Chamber, Glenn Beck to plot 2010 election," ThinkProgress, October 20, 2010. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  40. Tom Morton (2010-06-20). Beware government growth, liberty group says. Casper Star-Tribune. Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
  41. Stephanie Mencimer, "A Secret Tea Party Donor Revealed," Mother Jones, October 28, 2010. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  42. Lisa Graves (2011-03-29). Is Your Underwear Undermining Your Values? What Is Jockey's CEO Doing at a Tea Partiers' Convention and with David Koch?. Center for Media and Democracy. Retrieved on 2011-03-30. “underwear executive Debra Waller -- the Chief Executive Officer of Jockey International, Inc. -- revealed a lot about her opinions at the most recent annual convention of "Americans for Prosperity" (AFP) for its chapter in Wisconsin.”
  43. Kenneth P. Vogel and Ben Smith (2011-02-11). Kochs brothers' plan for 2012: raise $88 million. Politico.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-31. “Sean Noble, another top Koch operative, has been hired by Americans for Limited Government, another group that sources say received donations from Koch conference attendees for its efforts to attack Democrats during the 2010 midterm campaign.”
  44. Kate Zernike, "Secretive Republican Donors Are Planning Ahead," New York Times, October 19, 2012. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  45. Joan Walsh, "Robber baron justice," Salon, February 15, 2011. Accessed June 10, 2014.
  46. Sam Stein, Justices Scalia And Thomas's Attendance At Koch Event Sparks Judicial Ethics Debate, HuffPo, October 20, 2010.
  47. Eric Lichtblau, Advocacy Group Says Justices May Have Conflict in Campaign Finance Cases, NY Times, Jan 19, 2011, accesed July 10, 2011.
  48. Derek Cressman, Did James Bopp Conspire With Koch Industries, Commonblog.com, Feb 23, 2011, accessed July 11, 2011.
  49. Brad Smith bio, Institute for Humane Studies, accessed July 10, 2011.
  50. Ken Yontz, "The Kochs are fighting for your future," Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, May 1, 2015.