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kulturkampf: (kltr´kämpf´´) [Ger.,=conflict of cultures], "the conflict between the German government under Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church." Yahoo! Encyclopedia

kulturkampf: "The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic Church, carried out chiefly in Prussia and afterwards in Baden, Hesse, and Bavaria. The contest was waged with great vigour from 1871 to 1877; from 1878 to 1891 it gradually calmed down. On one side stood the government, the Liberals, and the majority of the Conservatives; on the other, the bishops, the priests, and the bulk of the Catholic people. Prussia was the chief centre of the conflict. The Prussian government and Prince Bismarck were the leaders in this memorable struggle." "New Advent" Catholic Encyclopedia