On April 30, 2003, President George W. Bush signed S. 151, the PROTECT Act of 2003 -- "Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today". The prime sponsor of S. 151 was Senator Orrin G. Hatch , with Senator Patrick Leahy  as co-sponsor. 
- Mark H. Allenbaugh, The PROTECT Act's Sentencing Provisions, And the Attorney General's Controversial Memo: An Assault Against the Federal Courts, FindLaw's Writ, August 13, 2003.
- John Ashcroft's Memo: Department Policy Concerning Charging Criminal Offenses, Disposition of Charges, and Sentencings, September 22, 2003.
- U.S. Sentencing Commission Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts, October 27, 2003.
- Ambika J. Biggs, The PROTECT Act and the First Amendment, First Amendment Center, August 27, 2003: "Groups working to stop child abduction and abuse hailed the PROTECT Act when President Bush signed it into law April 30, 2003. Aimed at protecting children from kidnappers and pedophiles, the Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today Act created a national network to broadcast child abductions. It also targeted child pornographers, and toughened penalties for sexual abuse and kidnapping. Despite its worthy purposes, however, the law also included significant First Amendment implications that received little notice in press coverage."