Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate

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Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a flame retardant used on plastics, flexible urethane foams, and textile backcoatings. Synonyms for it include Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate and Fyrol FR 2.[1] It is an organophosphate, a class of chemicals often used as flame retardants and pesticides. "TDCPP is a viscous, colorless liquid; is not volatile; and is soluble in water and most organic solvents."[2]

A study by Duke University found it in camping tents and on the hands of campers who had recently pitched tents containing the chemical.[3] It was also the most commonly found flame retardant in a 2011 study of polyurethane foam from common baby products.[4] Another study found it in 42 out of 102 samples of polyurethane foam from couch cushions.[5]

One manufacturer, ICP Industrial Products, has committed to discontinuing the sale of TDCP for flexible polyurethane foam upholstered home furnishings applications as of January 1, 2013[6] and ceasing its production of TDCPP by the end of 2015.[7]

Health Impacts

TDCPP is a carcinogen. It was added to California's Proposition 65 list of chemicals as a probable carcinogen in 2011.[8] TDCPP is a carcinogen in rats following chronic oral exposure.[2] TDCPP has also tested positive for mutagenicity in some studies.[2]

TDCPP is a cholinesterase inhibitor[9] and an endocrine disruptor.[10] A 2011 study on developmental neurotoxicity also concluded, "TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF [chlorpyrifos, a known developmental neurotoxicant]."[11]

In animal testing, TDCPP was found to be absorbed through the skin. Four hours after application, the chemical was mostly found in the animals' liver, lungs, skin, and kidneys. After oral administration, it was mostly found in rats' lungs, liver, and kidneys, but smaller amounts were found in the heart, adipose tissue, skin, brain, spleen, and gonads.[2]

Products and Manufacturers

TDCPP is made by ICL Industrial Products and sold under the name Fyrol FR 2[12] but they have committed to ceasing its production by the end of 2015.[13] Other trade names include PF 38, PF 38/3, Firemaster T33P, CRP, Apex Flame Proof, Emulsion 197 or 212, Antiblaze 195, and Amgard.[2]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch articles


  1. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate, Accessed March 28, 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals, Chapter 16: Tris (1,3-dichloropropyl-2) Phosphate, National Research Council, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Toxicology, Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals
  3. "Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure," Accessed February 25, 2014.
  4. Heather M. Stapleton, Susan Klosterhaus, and Arlene Blum, "Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products," Environ Sci Technol. Jun 15, 2011; 45(12): 5323–5331.
  5. Heather M. Stapleton, Smriti Sharma, Gordon Getzinger, P. Lee Ferguson, Michelle Gabriel, Thomas F. Webster, and Arlene Blum, "Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out," Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (24), pp 13432–13439 DOI: 10.1021/es303471d.
  6. ICL Industrial Products to expand polymeric flame retardant production," November 15, 2012, Accessed April 1, 2014.
  7. ICL To Increase Production of Polymeric Flame Retardant at West Virginia Facility," Press Release, ICL Industrial Products, November 13 2012, Accessed April 1, 2014.
  8. Current Proposition 65 List, Accessed March 29, 2013.
  9. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate, Accessed March 28, 2014.
  10. Liu X, Ji K, Choi K, "Endocrine disruption potentials of organophosphate flame retardants and related mechanisms in H295R and MVLN cell lines and in zebrafish," Aquatic Toxicolology. June 15, 2012, Accessed March 28, 2014.
  11. Laura V. Dishaw, Christina M. Powers, and Heather M. Stapleton, "Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells," Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Nov 1, 2011; 256(3): 281–289.
  12. "Flame Retardants," ICL Industrial Products, Accessed February 26, 2014.
  13. ICL To Increase Production of Polymeric Flame Retardant at West Virginia Facility," Press Release, ICL Industrial Products, November 13 2012, Accessed April 1, 2014.

External resources

External articles